Norwich Terrier Dog Breed


The Norwich Terrier is a breed of dog. It originates in the United Kingdom and was bred to hunt small vermin or rodents.

Appearance

These terriers are one of the smallest terriers (11-12 lb, 5-5.4 kg; 9-10 inches (24-25.5 cm) at the withers), with prick ears and a double coat, which come in red, tan, wheaten, black and tan, and grizzle.

Temperament
These small but hardy dogs are courageous, remarkably intelligent and wonderfully affectionate. They can be assertive but it is not typical for them to be aggressive, quarrelsome or shy. They are energetic and thrive on an active life. They are eager to please but have definite minds of their own. They are sensitive to scolding but 100% Terrier. They should never be kept outside or in a kennel setting because they love the companionship of their owners too much. Norwich are not given to unnecessary barking but they will warn of a stranger approaching. Norwich are good with children. If introduced to other household pets as a puppy they generally co-habit peacefully, though caution should be observed around rodent pets as they may be mistaken for prey.


Health


The life expectancy of the Norwich Terrier is 12–16 years. While the Norwich Terrier is considered a healthy breed, there are some health issues for which responsible breeders do preventative genetic health testing, thereby reducing the incidences.

The Norwich Terrier does have a predilection for some health issues but studies to determine the exact mode of inheritance or the exact frequency in the breed are unknown or have not been conclusive. At present there are no disorders identified as "most important". Of secondary magnitude, cataracts are recognized as a disorder that has been reported sporadically and may be inherited. Also of a secondary magnitude there are instances of epilepsy, narrow tracheas, luxating patellas, hip dysplasia, mitral valve disease, [atopy|atopy(allergic inhalant dermatitis)] and incorrect bites (how the teeth meet when the jaws are closed).

Like all dogs, Norwich Terriers can have autoimmune reactivity to rabies vaccinations. Rabies-Vaccine-Induced Ischemic Dermatopathy, or RVI-ID, is a non-fatal but potentially serious reaction to chemicals called adjuvants in the vaccine. RVI-ID is often misdiagnosed, but if correctly diagnosed, is treatable. Symptoms may include: symmetrical dark spots or lesions at the tips of the ears; swelling, hard lumps or dark spots in the vicinity of the injection site.

Higher volume Norwich breeders are seeing more dogs with breathing concerns, and the Norwich and Norfolk Terrier Club (USA) has formed a new "Health and Genetics Sub-Committee for Research on Upper Airway Syndrome in Norwich Terriers"[2]. Upper Airway Syndrome (UAS) covers all abnormalities that can occur in the upper airway, including: elongated soft palates; too short soft palates; narrow/misshapen tracheas; collapsing tracheas; stenotic nares (nasal passages that are too small); swollen tonsils; everted laryngeal saccules. These upper airway disorders can occur singly or in combination with one or two others. All compromise the airway and the dog's ability to breathe normally; the dog's breathing often sounds raspy or moist. It may be that shorter muzzles may have increased incidence of such issues.

Norwich Terriers generally have small litters of 1 to 3 puppies. Generally, if a female is healthy, its optimal breeding period is between the ages of 2 (after all genetic health testing is complete - heart, eyes, hips and petellas) and six years. At seven years of age dogs are considered geriatric. The small supply and the high price of a pure bred Norwich Terrier - often around US$2,500 in 2008 - has attracted fraud, as unsuspecting buyers pay full price for Cairn Terriers with docked tails, or mixed-breed puppies.

In the Canada and the United States you can verify if a dog has completed genetic health testing by checking the open registry at www.offa.org.


Care

Exercise requirements
Norwich Terriers are hardy, active dogs, bred for a working life of pursuing vermin and accompanying their farmer owners on horseback. A good daily walk is therefore the minimum needed to meet the exercise requirements of a healthy Norwich Terrier. Norwich Terriers compete in Earthdog competitions, and are increasingly common in Agility and Flyball competitions. The dogs were bred as working terriers, and thrive best with at least one hour of real activity daily, such as a good walk, run, or working session. Norwich are curious, independent dogs who may become bored by routine, repetitive walks/routes.

Grooming


The Norwich Terrier has two coats - a harsh, wiry topcoat and a soft warm undercoat. Ideally, the coat is combed with a steel comb daily to once a week to remove the loose, dead hairs and prevent matting. Proper maintenance of the Norwich coat, like other hard wiry coats, requires "stripping," or pulling the oldest hairs from the coat (using fingers and/or a "stripping knife," a special grooming comb). Stripping results both in the coat retaining its proper appearance, and in the health of the dog's skin and coat. Ideally, owners hand-strip the coat on a regular basis to achieve what is called a "rolling" coat, where hairs of all lengths are growing in. Maintaining a rolling coat is easier on the dog's skin and requires shorter grooming sessions. At minimum, the coat should be stripped once in the autumn and once in the spring. Clipping or cutting negatively affects the appearance of the coat's natural colours and texture.


Tail docking
Outside of Canada and the United States, the docked-tail profile of the Norwich Terrier is changing. In Australia tail docking is optional.But in NSW it is illegal. In the United Kingdom tail docking is only permitted for working dogs and is banned for dogs bred as pets or showing. Some countries banned general tail docking for a number of years e.g. Norway since 1987, Sweden since 1988. In the last four years Cyprus, Greece, Luxembourg and Switzerland have decided to introduce a ban on tail docking. In the United States, a docked tail is currently considered "strongly preferred" for success in the show ring.

Proponents of docking argue that a docked-tail dog can be extracted from a hole by the tail with less risk to the dog's spine. Opponents of tail docking note that docking severely damages the important canine tail-signalling system, so vital to dogs' social encounters, and also cite the historical basis of docking in the UK to avoid taxation of sporting dogs.


Breeding

Norwich Terriers are difficult to breed. Many have Caesarean sections. The North American average litter size for 2007 is two puppies with the total number of puppies for the year, in the USA, at approximately 750. There are breeding lines with higher average litter sizes as can be easily traced in pedigrees of kennel clubs who include such information, i.e. The Dutch Kennel Club. Similar information can be obtained at internet site of Finnish Kennel Club.

Recently in the United States, there has been significant pedigree fraud . Sometimes these fake Norwich Terriers are sold over the internet.


History
The breed has existed since at least the late 1800s, as working terrier of East Anglia, England. The dogs were useful as ratters in the stable yard, bolters of fox for the hunt, and family companions. It was the mascot of students at Cambridge University. Small red terriers, descendants of Irish Terriers, had existed in the area since at least the 1860s, and these might be the ancestors of the Norwich, or it might have come from the Trumpington Terrier, a breed that no longer exists. In its earliest history, it was also known as the Jones Terrier and the Cantab Terrier.

Since its earliest identification as a breed, puppies have had either drop or prick ears, and both were allowed when the Norwich was first recognized in the show ring in 1932 by The Kennel Club (England). Drop ears were often cropped until it became illegal to do so. This intensified a long-standing controversy over whether drop-eared dogs should be allowed in the show ring and whether the primary difference was simply the ears or whether other, deeper, personality and structural differences marked the drop-eared variety. Starting in the 1930s, breeders increased their efforts to distinguish the breeds. While Norfolk and Norwich Terriers were inter-bred for a number of years today they are positively two distinctive breeds. In fact some historical texts indicate that they were distinctive breeds before they were inter-bred.

Both ear types continued to be allowed in the ring until The Kennel Club recognized the drop-eared variety as a separate breed, the Norfolk Terrier, in 1964, and the American Kennel Club, United Kennel Club, and Canadian Kennel Club did the same in 1979. Until that time the breeds were designated by the AKC as Norwich Terriers, P.E. (prick ears) and Norwich Terriers, D.E. (drop ears).


Bibliography
# Bunting, Marjorie (1997). The Norwich Terrier. Bromma: Mälaröbörsen. ISBN 91-972833-6-3.
# Nicholas, Anna Katherine (March 1, 1994). Norwich Terrier. TFH Publications. ASBN 0866225803.
# Peper, Wilfried (1995). Norfolk und Norwich Terrier. Hamburg: Parey. ISBN 3-490-07619-2.
# Sattler, Victor (2009). Comparative Study & Illustrated Breed Standard of Norfolk and Norwich Terriers. Toronto: Wildgoose.

American Staffordshire Terrier Dog Breed

The American Staffordshire terrier is a breed of medium-sized, short-coated dog  whose early ancestors came from England. In the early part of the twentieth century, the breed gained respectability, and it was accepted by the American Kennel Club as Staffordshire Terrier.


Origins

Although the early ancestors of this breed came from England, the development of the American Staffordshire Terrier is the story of a truly American breed. This type of dog was instrumental in the success of farmers and settlers who developed this country. They were used for general farm work, guarding the homestead, and general companionship.

A number of the early ancestors were also developed for the "sport" of dog fighting. The extraordinary vitality of this breed is a direct result of breeding for successful fighting dogs.

Until the early part of the 19th century the Bulldog was bred with great care in England for the purpose of baiting bulls. Pictures from as late as 1870 represent the Bulldog of that day more like the present-day American Staffordshire Terrier than like the present-day Bulldog. Some writers contend it was the White English Terrier, or the Black and Tan Terrier, that was used as a cross with the Bulldog to perfect the Staffordshire Terrier. It seems easier to believe that any game terrier, such as the Fox Terrier of the early 1800s, was used in this cross, since some of the foremost authorities on dogs of that time state that the Black-and-Tan and the white English Terrier were none too game, but these same authorities go on to stress the gameness of the Fox Terrier. In analyzing the three above-mentioned terriers at that time, we find that there was not a great deal of difference in body conformation, the greatest differences being in color, aggressiveness, and spirit. In any event, it was the cross between the Bulldog and the terrier that resulted in the Staffordshire Terrier, which was originally called the Bull-and-Terrier Dog, Half and Half, and at times Pit Dog or Pit Bullterrier. Later, it assumed the name of Staffordshire Bull Terrier in England. These dogs began to find their way into America as early as 1870 where they became known as Pit Dog, Pit Bull Terrier, later American Bull Terrier, and still later as Yankee Terrier.


Popularity

American Staffordshire terriers reached a peak of popularity in the first half of the 20th century; “Pete the Pup” appeared in the Our Gang comedies, and the breed personified the all-American pet and soon spread all over the country.

In 1936, they were accepted for registration in the AKC Stud Book as Staffordshire Terriers. They belong to the terrier and molosser groups. The name of the breed was revised effective January 1, 1972 to American Staffordshire Terrier. Breeders in this country had developed a type which is heavier in weight than the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England and the name change was to distinguish them as separate breeds.

Although ancestors of the American Staffordshire were fighting dogs, the selective breeding since the 1930s has been away from the fighting heritage. The American Staffordshire Terrier of today is a companion and show dog, rather than a gladiator. Although more rarely used on the farm now, the talents that made him a good all purpose dog are still to be found in the breed. Often called Amstaffs by breed enthusiasts, the dogs' popularity began to decline in the United States following World War II in favor of other breeds. Today the breed is ranked 66 among 155 dog breeds in the USA.