Fox Terrier dog breed


The name Fox Terrier or Foxy refers primarily to two different breeds of dog, the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier, that were independently bred in England in the mid-19th century. The two terrier breeds are very similar, with the only major difference being the coats. The Smooth Fox Terrier has a smooth, flat, but hard and dense coat, whereas the Wire Fox Terrier coat should appear broken with a dense, wiry texture.

In show circles, the terms fox terrier and foxy are only used for these two breeds, but in other communities around the world, particularly rural and farming areas, these words are used for these breeds and also to refer to mixed-breed dogs or working terriers of fox terrier type, or to descendent breeds such as the Toy Fox Terrier and Miniature Fox Terrier, which are similar to each other.

Origin
This dog's breeds were established to assist in fox hunting. Before their development, a hunt would be ruined as soon as the fox reached its hole. The introduction of Fox Terriers into the hunting party solved the problem. If the fox "went to ground" (reached and entered its lair), the terrier would be sent in after it. This identified the major requirements for a Fox Terrier. Firstly, it had to have the stamina to run with the Foxhounds. Secondly, it had to be small enough to follow a fox down its lair. And thirdly, it had to be tough, as a cornered fox was likely to turn and try to fight off an intruder, so a foxy had to be able to stand up to it.

The term Fox Terrier was generic until the latter part of the 19th Century. It referred to a group of dogs of varying type which were bred for the hunt. These dogs were often called "foxies" regardless of type or size. The first Fox Terrier, a dog called "Foiler" or "Old Foiler", was registered by the Kennel Club circa 1875-6, and the breed began the process of standardization.

Refinement of breed types led to the assignment of new breed names to the ensuing breeds. A differentiation was made between the Fox Terrier varieties, although the two breeds were shown under the same breed standard until well into the 20th century. The process of selective breeding was duplicated in other countries as emigrants took their dogs to other parts of the world.


Development of the Fox Terrier around the world
In the United States, fanciers of the Jack Russell Terrier were adamant that their dog, of a type created by The Reverend Mr. John Russell, “The Sporting Parson”, was as much of a fox terrier as the smooth or wirehaired varieties. They referred to those breeds as the Modern Fox Terriers. Some Jack Russell owners preferred that their breed clubs remain unaffiliated, to preserve the working qualities of their fox terrier.

The Toy Fox Terrier was developed by selected breeding from smaller Fox Terriers. The breed was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1936 and generated little controversy.

Smooth and Wirehair Fox Terriers are often referred to as Standard Fox Terriers in Australia in an attempt to minimize confusion.

Today, there are many and varied breeds that are descended from or related to earlier fox terrier types. These include the

    * Brazilian Terrier
    * Japanese Terrier
    * Miniature Fox Terrier
    * Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz
    * Rat Terrier
    * Tenterfield Terrier
    * Chilean Fox Terrier
    * Toy Fox Terrier

The Smooth and Wirehair Fox Terriers are seldom used for hunting these days and are more often pets. Their small size makes them appealing.

Coloring
Genetically, both Smooth and Wire Fox Terriers have base colors of tan or black and tan. The white coloring derives from a "spotting gene", which acts to restrict the formation of color to a greater or lesser degree. This is not related to albinism  in any way. The alleles in the series that are believed present in Fox Terriers are sp for "piebald" markings (random spots, saddles, or even blankets of color, with the head solid color or exhibiting some white in blaze or half face) and sw, extreme white, which restricts color to virtually none or eye and ear patches. Pigment of the nose, lips, pads, and so on remain black in all cases. Eye rims are always black where there is color surrounding, but eyes surrounded by white may get rim pigment gradually or sometimes not at all.


Termperament
As described in the FCI standard for the wire-haired fox terrier, the terrier "should be alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on the tip-toe of expectation at the slightest provocation."

Maintenance
Fox Terriers need to have their nails clipped regularly, whether exercised or not. Their hair needs stripping on a frequent basis to keep well maintained. Especially with wire haired fox terriers, trimming the hair instead of stripping it causes the colors to become dull and the coat to become soft and curly.

Boston Terrier dog breed

The Boston Terrier is a breed  of dog originating in the United States of America. This "American Gentleman" was accepted in 1893 by the American Kennel Club as a non-sporting breed. Color and markings are important when distinguishing this breed to the AKC standard. They should be either black, brindle or seal with white markings.Bostons are small and compact with a short tail and erect ears. They are intelligent and friendly and can be stubborn at times. The average life span of a Boston is 13 years.

History
The Boston Terrier breed originated around 1870, when Robert C. Hooper of Boston purchased a dog known as Hooper's Judge, who was of a Bull and Terrier type lineage. Judge's specific lineage is unknown, however, Hooper's Judge is either directly related to the original Bull and Terrier breeds of the 1700s and early 1800s, or Judge is the result of modern English Bulldogs being crossed into terriers created in the 1860s for show purposes, like the White English Terrier.

Judge weighed over 29.7 pounds (13.5 kilos). Their offspring interbred with one or more French Bulldogs, providing the foundation for the Boston Terrier. Bred down in size from pit-fighting dogs of the Bull and Terrier types, the Boston Terrier originally weighed up to 44 pounds (20 kg.) (Olde Boston Bulldogge). The breed was first shown in Boston in 1870. By 1889 the breed had become sufficiently popular in Boston that fanciers formed the American Bull Terrier Club, but this proposed name for the breed was not well received by the Bull Terrier Fanciers; the breed's nickname, "roundheads", was similarly inappropriate. Shortly after, at the suggestion of James Watson (a noted writer and authority), the club changed its name to the Boston Terrier Club and in 1893 it was admitted to membership in the American Kennel Club, thus making it the first US breed to be recognized. It is one of a small number of breeds to have originated in the United States. The Boston Terrier was the first non-sporting dog bred in the US.

In the early years, the color and markings were not very important, but by the 1900s the breed's distinctive markings and color were written into the standard, becoming an essential feature. Terrier only in name, the Boston Terrier has lost most of its ruthless desire for mayhem, preferring the company of humans, although some males will still challenge other dogs if they feel their territory is being invaded.

Boston Terriers were particularly popular during the 1920s in the US.

Appearance
The Boston Terrier is a lively and highly intelligent breed. Typical physical traits include a smooth coat, and both a short head and tail resulting in a balanced compact build. Coloring is primarily brindle, seal or black in color and evenly marked with white. The head is in proportion to the size of the dog and the expression indicates a high degree of intelligence.

The body is rather short and well knit, the limbs strong and neatly turned, the tail is short and no feature is so prominent that the dog appears badly proportioned. The dog conveys an impression of determination, strength and activity, with style of a high order; carriage easy and graceful. A proportionate combination of "Color and White Markings" is a particularly distinctive feature of a representative specimen.

"Balance, Expression, Color and White Markings" should be given particular consideration in determining the relative value of general appearance to other points.

Size
Boston Terriers are typically small, compactly built, well proportioned dogs with erect ears, short tails, and a short muzzle that should be free of wrinkles. They usually have a square sort of face. According to international breed standard, the dog should weigh no less than 10 pounds and no more than 25 pounds. Boston Terriers usually stand 15-17 inches at the withers.


Coat and color
The Boston Terrier is characteristically marked with white in proportion to either black, brindle, seal, or a combination of the three. Seal is a color specifically used to describe Boston Terriers and is defined as a black color with red highlights when viewed in the sun or bright light. Black, Brindle, and Seal (all on white) are the only colors recognized by the AKC. There are also liver, brown, cream or red and white Boston Terriers, however these marking are more rare than the others listed above, and are disqualified from AKC events. If all other qualities are identical, brindle is the preferred color according to most breed standards.

Ideally, white should cover its chest, muzzle, band around the neck, half way up the forelegs, up to the hocks on the rear legs, and a white blaze between but not touching the eyes. For conformation showing, symmetrical markings are preferred. Due to the Boston Terrier's markings resembling formal wear, in addition to its refined and pleasant personality, the breed is commonly referred to as the "American Gentleman."

Temperament
Boston Terriers have strong, friendly personalities. Bostons can range in temperaments from those that are eager to please their master to those that are more stubborn. Both can be easily trained given a patient and assertive owner.

While originally bred for fighting, they were later down bred for companionship. The modern Boston Terrier can be gentle, alert, expressive, and well-mannered. It must be noted however, that they are not considered terriers by the American Kennel Club, but are part of the non-sporting group. Boston Terrier is something of a misnomer. They were originally a cross-breed between the Old English Bulldog and the English White Terrier.

Some Bostons enjoy having another one for companionship. Both females and males generally bark only when necessary. Having been bred as a companion dog, they enjoy being around people, and, if properly socialized, get along well with children, the elderly, other canines, and non-canine pets. Some Boston Terriers are very cuddly, while others are more independent.
Health
Several health issues are of concern in the Boston Terrier: cataracts (both juvenile and adult type), cherry eye, luxating patellas, deafness, heart murmur, and allergies. Curvature of the back, called roaching, might be caused by patella problems with the rear legs, which in turn causes the dog to lean forward onto the forelegs. This might also just be a structural fault with little consequence to the dog. Many Bostons cannot tolerate excessive heat and also extremely cold weather, due to the shortened muzzle, so hot or cold weather combined with demanding exercise can bring harm to a Boston Terrier. A sensitive digestive system is also typical of the Boston Terrier. In the absence of proper diet, flatulence is associated with the breed. Boston Terriers take in air while they eat and this causes high flatulence.

Bostons, along with Pug, Shih Tzu and other short-snouted breeds are brachycephalic breeds. The word comes from Greek roots "Brachy," meaning short and "cephalic," meaning head. This anatomy can cause tiny nostrils, long palates and a narrow trachea. Because of this, Bostons may be prone to snoring and reverse sneeze, a rapid and repeated forced inhalation through the nose, accompanied by snorting or gagging sounds used to clear the palate of mucus, but does not harm the dog in any way.

Irish Terrier dog breed

The Irish Terrier is a dog breed from Ireland, one of many breeds of Terrier.

The Irish Terrier is an active and compactly sized dog that is suited for life in both rural and city environments. Its harsh red coat protects it from all kinds of weather.

Appearance
Breed standards describe the ideal Irish Terrier as being racy, red and rectangular. Racy: an Irish Terrier should appear powerful without being sturdy or heavy. Rectangular: the outline of the Irish Terrier differs markedly from those of other terriers. The Irish Terrier's body is proportionately longer than that of the Fox Terrier, with a tendency toward racy lines but with no lack of substance.

The tail is customarily docked soon after birth to approximately two-thirds of the original length. In countries where docking is prohibited, the conformation judges emphasize tail carriage. The tail should start up quite high, but it should not stick straight up or curl over the back or either side. The ears are small and folded forward just above skull level. They are preferably slightly darker than the rest of the coat. It is fairly common to see wrongly positioned ears, even though most dogs have their ears trained during adolescence.


Coat and colour
The Irish Terrier is coloured golden red, red wheaten, or wheaten. Dark red is often mistaken as the only correct colour, possibly because wheaten coats are often of worse quality. As with many other solid-coloured breeds, a small patch of white is allowed on the chest. No white should appear elsewhere. As an Irish Terrier grows older, grey hair may appear here and there.

The outer part of the double coat should be straight and wiry in texture, never soft, silky, curly, wavy, or woolly as might be expected in the Kerry Blue Terrier. The coat should lie flat against the skin, and, though having some length, should never be so long as to hide the true shape of the dog. There are longer hairs on the legs, but never so much as a Wire Fox Terrier or Schnauzer. That means you have to have the coat trimmed often which can be expensive.

The inner part of the coat, called the under-wool or undercoat, should also be red. The under-wool may be hard for the inexperienced eye to see. Coat should be quite dense and so that "when parted with the fingers the skin is hardly visible".

A properly trimmed Irish Terrier should have some "furnishings" on legs and head. The slightly longer hair on the front legs should form even pillars, while the rear legs should only have some longer hair and not be trimmed too close to the skin. The chin is accentuated with a small beard. The beard should not be as profuse as that of a Schnauzer.

The eyes should be dark brown and quite small with a "fiery" expression. The eyes are topped with well-groomed eyebrows. The whole head should have good pigmentation.


Size
Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at the withers. However, it is not unusual to see bitches that are 50 cm tall or dogs that are even 53 cm (20 in). Younger generations are closer to the ideal, but there is a downside to this: when an Irish Terrier is very small and light-boned, it loses the correct racy type.

Very seldom does one see Irish Terriers that weigh only 11 to 12 kg (25-27 lb), as the original Kennel Club breed description states. 13 kg for a bitch and 15 for a dog are acceptable.

Temperament
The Irish Terrier is full of life, but not hyperactive; it should be able to relax inside the house and be roused to full activity level quickly.

Irish Terriers are good with people. Most Irish Terriers love children and tolerate rough-housing to a certain extent. Irish terriers are not always the best choice of dog, as they are very energetic and sometimes challenging to train. It is important that they have a strong leader, for whom they have natural respect. New tasks are easily mastered, providing the dog is motivated to learn; Irish terriers have less of an eagerness to please people than some other breed. In motivating, food and toys work equally well. Training will not be as easy as with other dog breeds that have stronger willingness to please people. They respond best to firm, consistent training from a relaxed, authoritative person. As with all dog breeds, violence should never be used - it is always best to outwit and lure. When seeking a trainer, one should look for a person who has experience with terriers.

Irish Terriers are often dominant with other dogs, and same-sex aggression is a common problem. The Irish Terrier will commonly be attracted to species of the same-sex. Poorly socialized individuals can start fights with minimal, if any, provocation. Thus, early socialization is a necessity. Most have strong guarding instincts and when these instincts are controlled, make excellent alarming watchdogs, but if they are not controlled, your dog will be very aggressive and not very compassionate towards the owner.

Most Irish Terriers are show dogs. There are however more and more people joining organised dog sports with their terriers. The obedience training required at a certain level in most dog sports is fairly easy, though the precision and long-lasting drive needed in the higher levels may be hard to achieve. Many Irish Terriers excel in agility, even though it may be hard to balance the speed, independence and precision needed in the higher levels. To date there is one Agility Champion in the US, and a handful of Finnish and Swedish Irish terriers compete at the most difficult classes.

Irish Terriers have a good nose and can learn to track either animal blood or human scent. Many Irish Terriers enjoy Lure Coursing, although they are not eligible for competition like sight hounds are. In Finland one Irish Terrier is a qualified Rescue Dog specializing at Sea Rescue.

Irish Terrier circa 1915
History
The breed's origin is not known. It is believed to have descended from the black and tan terrier-type dogs of Britain and Ireland, just like the Kerry Blue and Irish Soft-haired Wheaten Terriers in Ireland or the Welsh, Lakeland and Scottish Terriers in Great Britain.
F. M. Jowett writes in The Irish Terrier, 'Our Dogs' Publishing Co. Ltd., Manchester, England 1947 - 7th Edition: They are described by an old Irish writer as being the poor man's sentinel, the farmer's friend, and the gentleman's favourite...These dogs were originally bred not so much for their looks as for their working qualities and gameness, the Irish Terrier being by instinct a thorough vermin killer. They were formerly of all types and of all colours - black-and-tan, grey-and-brindle, wheaten of all shades, and red being the predominant colours. Colour or size evidently did not matter if they were hardy and game."

The proper selection process of the breed began only in the latter 19th century. They were shown now and then, sometimes in one class, sometimes in separate classes for dogs under and over 9 pounds.

The first breed club was set up in Dublin in 1879. Irish Terriers were the first members of the terrier group to be recognized by the English Kennel Club as a native Irish Breed - this happened just before the end of the 19th century. The first Irish Terriers were taken to the US in the late 19th century and quickly became somewhat popular.

Although the breed has never been very "fashionable", there used to be big influential kennels in Ireland, the Great Britain and US up to the 1960s. Nowadays there is ambitious breeding in many continents, including Africa (South Africa), North America, (Northern) Europe and Australia.


Care
When groomed properly, the Irish Terrier coat will protect the dog from rain and cold. A properly cared-for Irish Terrier does not shed either. The wiry coat is fairly easy to groom, pet dogs (rather than show dogs) needing stripping only once or twice a year.

The coat must be stripped by hand or a non-cutting knife to retain its weather-resistant qualities. This does not hurt the dog when done properly. Keeping the skin above the stripped section taut with the other hand helps especially where the skin is looser, i.e. belly and chest. Never cut the coat - use your fingers or a non-cutting knife. If the coat is clipped, it loses colour and becomes softer, thus losing its weather-resistant characteristics. For the same reason the coat should not be washed too often, as detergents take away the natural skin oils. Most Irish terriers only need washing when dirty.

When stripping, the coat may be "taken down" entirely to leave the dog in the undercoat until a new coat grows in. For a pet, this should be done at least twice a year. When a show-quality coat is required, it can be achieved in many ways. One is by "rolling the coat", i.e. stripping the dog every X weeks to remove any dead hair. Before a show an expert trimmer is needed to mould especially the head and legs.

Most Irish Terriers need to have their ears trained during adolescence. Otherwise the ears may stick up, roll back or hang down unaesthetically.


Health
Irish Terrier is a generally healthy breed. The life expectancy is around 13 – 14 years.

The proportions are not over-exaggerated in any way and thus eye or breathing problems are rare. Most Irish Terriers do not show signs of allergies towards foods. As they are small dogs, the breed has a very low incidence of hip dysplasia.

In the 1960s and 1970s there were problems with hyperkeratosis, a disease causing corny pads and severe pain. Today it is widely known which dogs carried the disease and respectable breeders do not use those bloodlines any more. A health study conducted by the Irish Terrier Club of America showed a greater-than-expected incidence of hypothyroidism and cataracts. There are not enough eye-checked individuals to draw any conclusions.


Appearances in arts and culture

Irish Terriers have appeared in the arts every now and then.

Jack London's books Jerry of the Islands and Michael, Brother of Jerry were about Irish Terriers, that according to the bloodlines recorded in the beginning of the book may actually have lived.

It is said that Disney's Tramp in 'Lady and the Tramp', although a mutt, was drawn to resemble an Irish Terrier. (In the comic book versions the brownish red color of Tramp has been changed to grey.)

The 2007 film Firehouse Dog features an Irish Terrier as the title character.

Former Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King owned several Irish Terriers (all named Pat), and had séances to "communicate" with the first Pat after the dog's death.

Alexandra Day's children's picture book Paddy's Payday features an Irish Terrier as the title character. (Day is best known for her book Good Dog, Carl.)

Border Terrier Dog Breed


A Border Terrier is a small, rough-coated breed  of dog of the terrier  group. Originally bred as fox and vermin hunters, Border Terriers share ancestry with Dandie Dinmont Terriers and Bedlington Terriers.

Though the breed is much older, the Border Terrier was officially recognized by the The Kennel Club in Great Britain in 1920, and by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1930.

In 2006, the Border Terrier ranked 81st in number of registrations by the AKC, while it ranked 10th in the United Kingdom.

In 2008, the Border Terrier ranked 8th in number of registrations by the UK Kennel Club.


Appearance
Identifiable by their otter-shaped heads, Border Terriers have a broad skull and short, strong muzzle with a scissors bite. The V-shaped ears are on the sides of the head and fall towards the cheeks. Common coat colors are grizzle-and-tan, blue-and-tan, red, or wheaten. Whiskers are few and short. The tail is naturally moderately short, thick at the base and tapering.

Narrow-bodied and well-proportioned, males stand 13 to 16 in (33 to 41 cm) at the shoulder, and weigh 13 to 15.5 lb (5.9 to 7.0 kg); females 11 to 14 in (28 to 36 cm) and 11.5 to 14 pounds (5.2 to 6.4 kg).

The Border Terrier has a double coat consisting of a short, dense, soft undercoat and harsh, wiry weather and dirt resistant, close-lying outer coat with no curl or wave. This coat usually requires hand-stripping twice a year to remove dead hair. It then takes about eight weeks for the top coat to come back in. For some dogs, weekly brushing will suffice. Most Border Terriers are seen groomed with short hair but longer hair can sometimes be preferred.


Temperament
Though sometimes stubborn and strong willed; border terriers are, on the whole very even tempered, and are rarely aggressive. Border Terriers generally get along well with other dogs and are often good with children.

Borders do well in task-oriented activities and have a surprising ability to jump high and run fast given the size of their legs. The breed has excelled in agility training, but they are quicker to learn jumps and see-saws than weaving poles. They take training for tasks very well, but appear less tractable if being taught mere tricks.

They are intelligent and eager to please, but they retain the capacity for independent thinking and initiative that were bred into them for working rats and fox underground. Their love of people and even temperament make them fine therapy dogs, especially for children and the elderly, and they are occasionally used to aid the blind or deaf. From a young age they should be trained on command.

Borders can adapt to different environments and situations well, and are able to deal with temporary change well. They will get along well with cats that they have been raised with, but may chase other cats and small animals such as mice, rabbits, squirrels, rats, and guinea pigs.

Borders love to sit and watch what is going on. Walks with Borders will often involve them sitting and lying in the grass to observe the environment around them. They can be stubborn when they are tired and often require short breaks to sit and observe during long walks; it can be difficult to get them moving again.


Health
Borders are a generally hardy breed, though there are certain genetic health problems associated with them, including:

    * Hip dysplasia
    * Perthes disease
    * Various heart defects
    * Juvenile cataracts
    * Progressive retinal atrophy
    * Seizures
    * Canine Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome (CECS)
Border Terriers are also known to be sensitive to anaesthetics and slow to induce.

Due to their instinct to kill and consume smaller animals, Border Terriers often destroy, and sometimes eat, toys that are insufficiently robust. Indigestion resulting from eating a toy can cause the appearance of illness. Typical symptoms include lethargy, unwillingness to play, a generally 'unhappy' appearance, lack of reaction to affection, and inability or unwillingness to sleep. These symptoms are generally very noticeable, however, they are also present just prior to Border Terrier bitches being on heat. They are strong-willed, very lively, and also like running.


Earthdog trials
Border Terriers have earned more American Kennel Club (AKC) Earthdog titles than any other terrier. An AKC earthdog test is not true hunting, but an artificial, non-competitive, exercise in which terriers enter 9 in (23 cm) wide smooth wooden tunnels, buried under-ground, with one or more turns in order to bark or scratch at caged rats that are safely housed behind wooden bars. The tests are conducted to determine that instinctive traits are preserved and developed, as the breed originators intended for the dogs to their work. While earthdog tests are not a close approximation of hunting, they are popular in the U.S. and in some European countries because even over-large Kennel Club breeds can negotiate the tunnels with ease, dogs can come to no harm while working, and no digging is required. Since Border Terriers are "essentially working terriers", many Border Terrier owners consider it important to test and develop their dogs' instinct. These tests also provide great satisfaction for the dogs. The American Working Terrier Association (AWTA) does conduct "trials"; where the dogs instincts are tested, and then judged to determine a "Best of Breed" Earthdog. These trials are also run similar as described below.


History
The Border Terrier originates in, and takes its name from the Scottish borders. Their original purpose was to bolt foxes which had gone to ground. They were also used to kill rodents, but they have been used to hunt otters and badgers too.

The first Kennel Club Border Terrier ever registered was The Moss Trooper, a dog sired by Jacob Robson's Chip in 1912 and registered in the Kennel Club's Any Other Variety listing in 1913. The Border Terrier was rejected for formal Kennel Club recognition in 1914, but won its slot in 1920, with the first standard being written by Jacob Robson and John Dodd. Jasper Dodd was made first President of the Club.

Famous Border Terriers

    * Puffy in There's Something About Mary
    * Puffy's female offspring Raleigh, Clay Aiken's pet dog
    * Baxter in Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy
    * Hubble in Good Boy!
    * Co-star in Lassie (Named "Toots")
    * Seymour in Futurama as main character Philip J. Fry's pet dog when he worked at Pinucchi's Pizza
    * Lady Eccles in Coronation Street as Blanch's inheritance gift from her friend
    * Scamp in The Suite Life of Zack & Cody as Maddie's scruffy dog who falls in love with London Tipton's Pomeranian, Ivana
    * Shep Proudfoot, Greg Laswell's pet dog
    * Mackenzie, the dog of the Champion
    * Nancy in Unfabulous as Addie's pet dog
    * Chomp in 102 Dalmatians
    * Tansy as Toto from Return To Oz (1985 Disney film)

Rat Terrier dog breed

Rat Terrier dog 

The Rat Terrier is an American  dog breed with a rich and varied background as an all-around hunting dog. Traditionally more of a type than a breed they share much ancestry with the tough little mixed breed dogs known as "feists". Several private associations have maintained Rat Terriers registries for some decades, but more recently there have been movements to obtain breed recognition by the major canine organizations. Common throughout America on family farms in the 1920s and 30s, they are generally considered a rare breed. Today's Rat Terrier is an intelligent, active little dog that is equally cherished as a house helper, vermin hunter and a family pet.


Appearance
The Rat Terrier comes in a variety of coat colors and patterns. Puppies start at weight of 2 pounds. The "classic" base is black tanpoint with piebald spotting (known as "black tricolor"), but blue and brown tricolors are also common, along with red, sable, lemon, burnt orange, and other colors set off by varying amounts of white spotting. Ticking is usually visible in the white parts of the coat, or in the underlying skin. Brindle, currently disallowed by the main breed standards, is considered by some to be a "traditional" Rat Terrier pattern, and there is a growing movement to have this pattern accepted into the breed. However, merle is widely considered to be the result of recent outcrosses and, because of associated health problems, is rejected by most Rat Terrier breeders.

Ear carriage can be erect, tipped, or button, all of which contribute to an intelligent, alert expression. The tail has been traditionally docked to about 2–3 inches, but the bobtail gene is very common in Rat Terriers and can result in a variety of tail lengths. Today, some breeders prefer a natural, undocked tail, which is accepted in the breed standards.

In the 1970s, a hairless mutation appeared in a single Rat Terrier bitch and was propagated into a strain of the Rat Terrier. After a period of development by crossing to coated dogs, the United Kennel Club (UKC) recognized the American Hairless Terrier as a separate breed in 2004.

The Rat Terrier ranges from about 10 to 25 pounds and stands 13 to 18 inches at the shoulder. The miniature size (13 inches and under as defined by the UKC) is becoming increasingly popular as a house pet and companion dog. A larger strain, often in excess of 25 pounds, has been developed. These "Deckers" or Decker Giants were named after breeder Milton Decker who created a larger hunting companion and are recognized by the National Rat Terrier Association (NRTA, see Breed recognition below). The NRTA recognizes a Toy Variety weighing 10 pounds or less, and continues to classify the Teddy Roosevelt Terrier as the Type B Rat Terrier.

Recently, a new registry has been started by Milton Decker, his son Ellis Decker, and a fellow hunting enthusiast, George Palmer called the Decker Hunting Terrier Registry, or DHTR. This registry's mission is to keep all the qualities that set the Decker aside from the standard Rat Terrier, while retaining and improving upon the hunting ability. This registry believes that inbreeding forever will eventually ruin the breed and feels that very selective out-crossing is necessary to maintain a healthy gene pool as well as add desirable traits.

The Heritage Decker Terrier Registry is preserving all the original bloodlines to this breed and will not be allowing out-crosses because the gene pool of registered dogs remains at 1,400 at present. Many breeders are working to preserve exactly what was established in the 1970s, a great all around working dog.

Although both registries have different opinions about out-crossing, both registries are working to preserve what they feel is best for the future of the breed.



Temperament
Although often mistaken for a Jack Russell Terrier, the Rat Terrier has a different profile and a very different temperament. Rat Terriers are finer of bone and have a more refined head. They always have a short single coat, i.e., they are never wire coated.


History
The breed name comes from the occupation of its earliest brought to the US by working class British migrants, these quick, tough little dogs gained their fame in rat pit gambling. However they were, for the most part, bred for speed. Their speed is used for controlling vermin and hunting squirrels, hare, and other small game. Like all terriers of this type, Rat Terriers most likely developed from crosses among breeds like the English White Terrier, Manchester Terrier, Smooth Fox Terrier, and Whippet. After the 1890s, as the breed type became popular in America, other breeds were added to the mix. Beagle, Italian Greyhounds, Miniature Pinschers, and Chihuahuas were likely used to add scenting ability, speed, and smaller size. Many of the foundation Rat Terriers were indistinguishable from small mixed-breed hunting dogs known as "feists". The smaller varieties were split off from the Rat Terrier very early on, registered by the UKC as the Toy Fox Terrier beginning in 1936.

Rat Terriers were cherished as loyal and efficient killers of vermin on 20th century American Farms, as well as excellent hunting companions. As a result they were one of the most popular dog types from the 1920s to the 1940s. However the widespread use of chemical pesticides and the growth of commercial farming led to a sharp decline in the breed from the 1950s onwards. Fortunately breed loyalists maintained the bloodline, leading to the modern Rat Terrier we enjoy today.

The genetic diversity of the Rat Terrier is undoubtedly its greatest asset, and is responsible for the overall health, keen intelligence, and soundness of the breed. Most modern breeds were developed from a few founding dogs and then propagated from a closed gene pool. In contrast, the Rat Terrier has benefited from a long history of refinement with regular outcrosses to bring in useful qualities and genetic variability.

Breed recognition
Rat Terrier organizations exhibit the typical disputes over the course of action to be taken for the promotion and preservation of the breed. As usual among working breeds, points of departure are which dog type best represents the breed and whether the dog's working qualities will be sacrificed to selection for conformation show competition. Perhaps because the Rat Terrier has existed for decades with several evident types upheld by different clubs, disagreements can be highly charged. It seems safe to say however that even farm-bred Rat Terriers have been cherished as much for their smart, amusing, and trainable companion qualities as for their skills at eradicating rats and hunting small game. Thus it is not surprising to see increasing numbers of Rat Terriers excelling at performance sports such as agility, railly, and obediences.

The UKC officially recognized the breed on January 1, 1999. The Rat Terrier Club of America is actively working toward recognition by the American Kennel Club and the breed was accepted into the AKC's Foundation Stock Service in 2005. The first Rat Terrier to earn a title under AKC Sanctioning was in Agility on January 14, 2006 in Van Nuys, California.


Miscellaneous
The RCA trademark dog, Nipper ("His Master's Voice") might have been a Rat Terrier or a smooth fox terrier.

U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt owned a small, dark colored dog that became well known for eradicating rats from the White House, and some have claimed the dog as a Rat Terrier. A short-legged version of the Rat Terrier (a.k.a. the Type-B Rat Terrier) was recognized in 1999 by the UKC as a separate breed, named the Teddy Roosevelt Terrier since the former President's dogs were supposedly of the short-leg variety.

The Rat Terrier was a common farm dog in the early 1900s, bred for catching barn rats in haystacks. Purportedly a rat terrier holds the record for most rats killed in a single infested barn: 2501 rats in 7 hours.

Eleanor Powell trained a little dog named Buttons for a tap dance scene in "Lady Be Good"
A Rat Terrier was mentioned in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird  published in 1960. Sean Connery attends a rat baiting match in the 1978 movie The Great Train Robbery which features a Rat Terrier.

Shirley MacLaine's beloved rat terrier, Terry, is featured in her 2003 book Out on a Leash.

Best-selling author John Sandford is a rat terrier owner, and has been known to refer to them in his novels.

Bedlington Terrier dog breed


The Bedlington Terrier is a breed of terrier named after the mining town of Bedlington, Northumberland in North East England.

Description
Appearance: The Bedlington Terrier is often described as looking like a lamb on a leash, probably because it has non-shedding fur with a woolly texture. These dogs may be blue, sandy, liver, or dark brown/black and sable and can be solid colours or have tan markings.

This breed has a wedge-shaped head with sparkling, triangular eyes.Its body shape, however, is unusual for a terrier, being somewhat like a Greyhound in construction, which enables it to gallop at great speed. However, the front legs are constructed differently from those quick hounds in that, the front legs are closer together at the feet than at the elbows - creating a triangular shape when viewed from the front. This enables them to turn or pivot quickly when chasing quarry at high speed. They are groomed with long hair left on the top of their skull and muzzle, tassels on the ears and slightly longer furnishings on the legs than the body coat.The quarry, trying to escape, would bite at the dog, and the hair saved the Bedlington from an injury to the important facial area and possible death from an infection. A similar idea is seen in the tail, crest and wings of the Secretary Bird.


Temperament
Calmer and less boisterous than many other terriers, the Bedlington Terrier is known as a dog with a good nature and mild manners.In addition, it is fast enough to bay a badger or a fox and is a first-rate water dog. Incredibly smart and attentive to its owner, the Bedlington is one of the most reliable terriers. They are problem solvers and loyal family companions.

Although Bedlington Terriers resemble lambs with their thin tails and fluffy white fur, they can be vicious. If left alone with nothing to do, they can become destructive and need plenty of excercise. However, with firm, loving handling and plenty of excercise they can make cheerful, lovely companions.

Care

Grooming
Weekly combing and professional grooming are needed every 6-8 weeks to keep their coats (which tend to curl) in good shape. Dogs being prepared for the show ring often have much more hair left on them than those in "pet clips," which provide pet owners with a more manageable trim for their pets. The show trim is entirely hand-scissored, with the exception of the ears, face/throat, belly and tail which are trimmed with an electric clipper. It can take years to master the grooming pattern for this breed.


Exercise
These high-energy dogs need several vigorous walks and aerobic play sessions daily to keep them happy and content. The breed is well suited for agility, earthdog, obedience and other performance events.

Hypoallergenic qualities
Bedlington Terriers often appear on lists of dogs that do not shed (moult),but this is misleading. Every hair in the dog coat grows from a hair follicle, which has a cycle of growing, then dying and being replaced by another follicle. When the follicle dies, the hair is shed. The length of time of the growing and shedding cycle varies by breed, age, and by whether the dog is an inside or outside dog. "There is no such thing as a nonshedding breed."The grooming of the Bedlington helps remove loose hair, and the curl in the coat helps prevent dead hair and dander from escaping into the environment, as with the poodle's coat. The frequent brushing and bathing required to keep the Bedlington looking its best removes hair and dander and controls the other potent allergen, saliva.Although hair, dander, and saliva can be minimized, they are still present and can stick to "clothes and the carpets and furnishings in your home"; inhaling them, or being licked by the dog, can trigger a reaction in a sensitive person.

Bedlington Terrier circa 1915
History
The famed progenitor of Bedlington was a dog named "Old Flint", whelped in 1782 and owned by "Squire Trevelyan." Originally, the breed was known as the "Rothbury" or "Rodbery Terrier." This name derived from a famous bitch brought from Staffordshire  by a company of nail makers who settled in Rothbury. The Terriers of this section were accustomed to rodent hunting underground, and worked with packs of foxhounds  kept there at the time.

It is suggested that the Bedlington may well have made its way to Ireland and played a part in the early development of the Kerry Blue Terrier.

The first Bedlington Terrier club was formed in 1877. The Bedlington Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1948.

Ch. Femars' Cable Car, descendant of Ch. Rock Ridge Night Rocket winner of best-in-show at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1948, was featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated in the February 8, 1960 edition.


Health

Mortality
Median longevity of Bedlington Terriers, based on two recent UK surveys, is about 13.5 years,which is longer than for purebred dogs in general and longer than most breeds similar in size.The longest-lived of 48 deceased dogs in a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey was 18.4 years. Leading causes of death among Bedlington Terriers in the UK were old age (23%), urologic (15%), and hepatic (12.5%).The leading "hepatic" cause of death was copper toxicosis. Dogs that died of liver diseases usually died at a younger age than dogs dying of most other causes.

Morbidity
Bedlington Terrier owners in the UK reported that the most common health issues among living dogs were reproductive (primarily of concern to breeders), heart murmur, and eye problems such as epiphora and cataracts. Copper toxicosis occurred among about 5% of living dogs.


Copper Toxicosis; Copper Storage Disease
Bedlington Terriers have an unusually high incidence of copper toxicosis, an inherited autosomal recessive disease, characterized by accumulation of excess copper in the liver. Genetic testing is now available. The disease is diagnosed with a liver biopsy.It is essential that anyone interested in purchasing a Bedlington is provided with proof of the dogs' unaffected status.