Bull Terrier Dog Breed


The Bull Terrier or English Bull Terrier is a breed of dog in the terrier family. They are known for their large, egg-shaped head, small triangular eyes and their "jaunty gait." Their temperment has been described as generally fun-loving, active and clownish, but also erratic and unpredictable. Bull terriers have appeared as characters in many cartoons, books, movies, and advertisements, perhaps most famously as party loving Spuds MacKenzie in Budweiser  beer commercials in the late 1980s, and more recently as the Target dog.


Appearance
The Bull Terrier's most recognizable feature is its head, described as 'egg shaped' when viewed from the front, almost flat at the top, with a Roman muzzle sloping evenly down to the end of the nose with no stop. The unique triangle-shaped eyes are small, dark, and deep-set. The body is full and round, while the shoulders are robust and muscular and the tail is carried horizontally. Bull terriers are known to have more muscle than any other breed of dog pound for pound. It walks with a jaunty gait, and is popularly known as the 'gladiator of the canine race'.

There is no designated height or weight for the breed but the average is, Height: 51-61 cm (20-24 inches), Weight: 20-38 kg (44-85 pounds) The Bull Terrier and the Miniature Bull Terrier are the only recognized breeds that have triangle-shaped eyes.


Temperament
Though this breed was once a fierce gladiator, it is much gentler today. A Bull Terrier might have a preventive effect and it will certainly defend its owner in a truly critical situation. Bull terriers are known to be courageous, scrappy, fun-loving, active, clownish and fearless. The Bull Terrier is a loyal and polite dog. They become very attached to their owners. The Bull Terrier thrives on firm, consistent leadership and affection and makes a fine family pet. Bull Terriers like to be doing something and fit in well with active families where they receive a great deal of companionship and supervision. They do not do well in situations where they are left alone for 8 hours a day. This breed can be a wonderful pet if very thoroughly socialized and trained, but not recommended for most households. Fond of both grown-ups and children, but if they do not get enough physical and mental exercise they may be too energetic for small children. Children should be taught how to display leadership towards the dog. Meek owners will find them to become very protective, willful, possessive and/or jealous. Bull Terriers may try to join into family rough housing or quarrel. Bull Terriers must be given a lot of structure. Be sure to socialize them well and remain their pack leader 100% of the time, otherwise, they can be extremely aggressive with other dogs. Unaltered males may not get along with other male dogs. Males and females can live together happily and two females can also be a good combination with care and supervision. They are not recommended with other non-canine pets such as cats, hamsters, and guinea pigs. They make excellent watch dogs.


Health
All puppies should be checked for deafness, which occurs in 20% of pure white dogs and 1.3% of colored dogs and is difficult to notice, especially in a relatively young puppy. Many Bull Terriers have a tendency to develop skin allergies.Insect bites, such as those from fleas, and sometimes mosquitoes and mites, can produce a generalized allergic response of hives, rash, and itching. This problem can be stopped by keeping the dog free of contact from these insects, but this is definitely a consideration in climates or circumstances where exposure to these insects is inevitable. Their lifespan is somewhere between 10 and 14 years,although they can live longer - a male bull terrier house pet in South Wales, UK by the name of "Buller" lived to the age of 18 years.The oldest female Bull Terrier on record is an Australian house pet dubbed "Puppa Trout" who remained sprightly into her 17th year.The second oldest female Bull Terrier on record is "Boots Moon Stomp Stout (Crain)" of Denver, Colorado USA. Boots lived to be 16 years of age.


The Bull Terrier's coat is easy to maintain, but grooming can keep it in near-perfect condition. Adding oils to their meals can also vastly improve the quality of their coat.English Bull Terriers have thin, fine hair that requires minimal grooming. They are known to have light shedding patterns. Another important issue is that any whiteness around the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, stomach or hindquarters with a short and sparse haired breed such as this must be protected against the sun with a gentle but high SPF factored sunscreen to prevent sunburn and subsequent cancer.The Bull Terrier requires a fair amount of exercise, but overworking the dog at a young age will cause strained muscles.Older dogs do require exercise, but in small doses, whereas younger ones will be happy to play for hours on end. The breed is renowned for being extremely greedy.

Other common ailments: Umbilical Hernia and Acne. Bull Terriers can also suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder, such as tail chasing, self mutilation, and obsessive licking.


History
Early in the mid-1800s the "Bull and Terrier" breeds were developed to satisfy the needs for vermin control and animal-based blood sports. The "Bull and Terriers" were based on the Old English Bulldog (now extinct) and one or more of Old English Terrier and "Black and tan terrier", now known as Manchester Terrier. This new breed combined the speed and dexterity of lightly built terriers with the dour tenacity of the Bulldog, which was a poor performer in most combat situations, having been bred almost exclusively for killing bulls and bears tied to a post. Due to the lack of breed standards -- breeding was for performance, not appearance -- the "Bull and Terrier" eventually divided into the ancestors of "Bull Terriers" and "Staffordshire Bull Terriers", both smaller and easier to handle than the progenitor.


About 1850, James Hinks started breeding "Bull and Terriers" with "English White Terriers" (now extinct), looking for a cleaner appearance with better legs and nicer head. In 1862, Hinks entered a bitch called "Puss" sired by his white Bulldog called "Madman" into the Bull Terrier Class at the dog show held at the Cremorne Gardens in Chelsea. Originally known as the "Hinks Breed" and "The White Cavalier", these dogs did not yet have the now-familiar "egg face", but kept the stop in the skull profile.


The dog was immediately popular and breeding continued, using Dalmatian, Greyhound, Spanish Pointer, Foxhound and Whippet to increase elegance and agility; and Borzoi and Collie  to reduce the stop. Hinks wanted his dogs white, and bred specifically for this. Generally, however, breeding was aimed at increasing sturdiness: three "subtypes" were recognised by judges, Bulldog, Terrier and Dalmatian, each with its specific conformation, and a balance is now sought between the three. The first modern Bull Terrier is now recognised as "Lord Gladiator", from 1917, being the first dog with no stop at all.

Due to medical problems associated with all-white breeding, Ted Lyon among others began introducing colour, using Staffordshire Bull Terriers in the early 20th century. Coloured Bull Terriers were recognised as a separate variety (at least by the AKC) in 1936. Brindle is the preferred colour, but other colours are welcome.

Along with conformation, specific behaviour traits were sought. The epithet "White Cavalier", harking back to an age of chivalry, was bestowed on a breed which while never seeking to start a fight was well able to finish one, while socialising well with its "pack", including children and pups. Hinks himself had always aimed at a "gentleman's companion" dog rather than a pit-fighter—though Bullies were often entered in the pits, with some success. Today the Bullie is valued as a comical, mischievous, imaginative and intelligent (problem-solving) but stubborn house pet suitable for experienced owners.


Bull Terrier facts
    * The Afrikaans name for the Bull Terrier is Varkhond
    * There is also a miniature version of this breed; this distinct breed is officially known as the Miniature Bull Terrier.

    * Bull Terriers are prominently featured in Jonathan Carroll's 1980 novel The Land of Laughs.

    * Bull Terriers have appeared in many movies, including: A Dog's Life (1918), It's a Dog's Life (1955), Oliver!, Baxter, Patton, Toy Story, Babe: Pig in the City, Next Friday, Friday After Next, Frankenweenie, Trainspotting, Bulletproof, Derailed, "Scotland, PA", The Incredible Journey, Space Buddies and Snatch.

    * A Bull Terrier appears in several scenes of the 1976 film Je t'aime... moi non plus.

    * Bull Terriers have also featured in television shows such as the 1970s television show Baa Baa Black Sheep, in the opening credits of the British television show Barking Mad, and in the short lived Fox series Keen Eddie.
    * A Bull Terrier is the main character in a Max Brand novel "The White Wolf".

    * Spuds Mackenzie, a dog featured in an advertising campaign for Bud Light beer in the late 1980s, was a bull terrier.

    * American children's writer and illustrator Chris Van Allsburg features a bull terrier named Fritz in at least one scene in every book.


Famous Bull Terriers
    * Abraxas Aaran, who portrayed Willie, the title character's dog, in the 1970 film Patton.
    * Baxter, from the film Baxter - with the tagline, "Méfiez-vous du chien qui pense." ("Beware the dog that thinks.")
    * Blue, owned by Canadian hockey commentator Don Cherry, is widely considered to be almost as famous as Cherry himself.
    * Bodger, an old white bull terrier, is a major character in the book The Incredible Journey by Sheila Burnford and the movie
    * Brut, in the novel, Answers to Brut, by Gillian Rubinstein
    * In Charles Dickens' novel Oliver Twist, Bill Sykes owns an English Bull Terrier named Bullseye.
    * Bullseye mascot of the Target Corporation
    * Chester, Chad's (Preppy) dog in Rockstar Vancouver's video game Bully
    * Chico, a dog in Next Friday and Friday After Next
    * Creampuff, one of Irish Murphy's pig hunting dogs from the Footrot Flats comic series.
    * Kirk Hammett of the thrash metal band Metallica has a bull terrier named Darla.
    * Dave, an old white bull terrier of the Priory Estate.
    * Hip-Hop artist Adil Omar has a bull terrier named Diablo.
    * Fritz, the black-and-white bull terrier who appears in every Chris Van Allsburg book.
    * Grimm, of the cartoon series Mother Goose and Grimm.
    * Odd's dog, Kiwi, is rumored to be a bull terrier but he looks more like a Whippet.
    * Jock, one of the most famous dogs in South Africa. He was the companion of the Percy Fitzpatrick. A book was written about him by Fitzpatrick, It was called Jock of the Bushveld.
    * Lockjaw, Pepper's companion in Sierra's Pepper's Adventures in Time.
    * Meatball, White bull terrier pet of Major Gregory "Pappy" Boyington in Baa Baa Black Sheep (TV series).
    * Pete, from the Fox-television series "Keen Eddie", 13 episodes, 2003
    * Rex from the film Stealing Harvard. Rex is a mean dog who always agrees with his master. However, his crankyness goes away when he tries to bite a man in the crotch and ends up falling in love and having sex with him.
    * Rick Springfield's bull terrier Ronnie appears on the cover of his album Working Class Dog.
    * Rude Dog
    * Sam, who accompanied Alby Mangels, Dutch-Australian adventurer, on his world travels.
    * Scud, from the Disney/Pixar film Toy Story.
    * Sparky, the dog who appears in "Frankenweenie"
    * Spuds MacKenzie - "star" of Bud Light beer commercials in the late 1980's
    * Spunky, of Rocko's Modern Life, resembles a Bull Terrier and was also the name of a famous MA Bull Terrier.
    * Whiskey, from the Eidos Commandos series
    * Willie, owned by World War II US Army General George S. Patton and named after William the Conqueror.
    * Unnamed bull terriers regularly appearing in New Yorker cartoonist George Booth's cartoons. 
The dog from Angry Kid
    * Mumps, the bull terrier who wanders around with Bob Jakin, a prominent character in the novel "The Mill on the Floss" by George Eliot.

Old English Terrier Dog Breed

Appearance

HEAD: The head is strong and powerful, balanced to the size of the dog, wedge shaped. The skull and the muzzle are equal in length, or the muzzle is slightly shorter than the skull. The muzzle is strong.

TEETH: scissor or level bite.

EYES: Set squarely in the skull, fairly wide apart.

EARS: Triangular in shape, moderate in size, folding tightly above the skull or standing straight up.

NOSE: Black.

NECK: The neck is muscular and moderate in length, widening gradually from the back of the skull and blending into the shoulders.

FOREQUARTERS: The shoulder is long, sloping and well laid back.

BODY: In complete proportion, the body will be square or slightly longer than tall, measured from the front of the shoulder to the end of the buttocks, and from the withers to the ground. Lion has a slight to moderate tuck up.

The chest is deeper than it is wide.

HINDQUARTERS: The hindquarters are strong and muscular.

TAIL: May be docked or natural. If docked, a quarter to one-third is removed. If natural, the tail begins at the back-line and tapers to a point.

COAT: The coat can be smooth, broken, or rough.

COLOR: Black, or Black and white markings.

HEIGHT & WEIGHT: The Old English Terrier ranges in height from 12 to 18 inches at the withers. Weight ranges from 14 to 35 pounds.

GAIT: When working, the gait is agile, marked by the ability to move with quick easy grace , while speed and power complement each other to achieve fast and meaningful action. The movements of the Old English Terrier should meet the speed and cunningness of their minds, never hampering or slowing the Old English Terrier down.


Temperament
The Old English is a working and sporting terrier that is, in general, an exceptional athlete with a high, intense, and vigorous prey drive that is followed, if need be, by an awesome display of gameness.

The breed as a whole is very physically and mentally active. They require a lot of exercise and mental challenges. They are extremely people friendly, and make wonderful companion pets.


History
By the 1700s the Old English Terrier also known as the Black Terrier had been developed into two types, the rough-coated Black Terrier and the smooth-coated Black Terrier.The rough-coated Black Terrier had been established in England during the 17th and 18th century. The smooth-coated Black Terrier was likely the result of crosses made between the rough-coated Black Terriers, smooth-coated Terriers and other smooth-coated English breeds. By the mid to late 1700s the smooth-coated Black Terrier type had been established.

The Old English Terrier was developed and selected based on the quarry or work which it was specifically needed for, and this led to variations in body, coat and size.

Henry Compton in his book 'The Twentieth Century Dog (1904)' wrote (concerning the history of the terrier):

There were in different parts of the island yellow terriers, and red terriers, and black terriers, and black and tan terriers, and brindle terriers, and greyish terriers; there were large terriers, weighing from 30 pounds to 40 lbs., and one mentioned as weighing 50 lbs., and there were small terriers for whom an "under 9 lbs." class was provided; there were terriers with smooth coats, and wire coats, and curly coats; there were, in short, terrier types enough to create a collection.

By the early 1800s the Old English Terrier could be found throughout the world. In Henry George Ward's book 'Mexico', Ward wrote about his harsh journey to Mexico and the tenacity, grit, and ability of the Black Terrier that accompanied him on his trip in 1827. The Oriental Sporting Magazine, in April, 1828, printed a poem about a Black Terrier that had been killed by a tiger in Southern Konkan

The Name "Old English Terrier"
The term "Old English Terrier" has also been applied, in the past and present, to the Patterdale Terrier and the Black and Tan Terrier to some degree or another. however, there is only one Old English Terrier registered with any Registry.

Australian Silky Terrier Dog Breed


The Australian Silky Terrier is a small breed  of dog of the terrier  dog type. The breed was developed in Australia, although the ancestral types and breeds were from Great Britain. It is closely related to the Australian Terrier and the Yorkshire Terrier. The breed is called the Silky Terrier  in North America, but is called the Australian Silky Terrier in its country of origin and in the rest of the world.


Appearance
The Australian Silky Terrier is a small and compact short legged terrier, 23 to 26 cms (9 to 10 ins) at the withers, alert and active. The long silky blue and tan coat  is an identifying feature, hanging straight and parted along the back, and described as "flat, fine and glossy".All proportions and aspects of the body and head as well as desirable shades of blue and tan and placement of markings are extensively described in the breed standard.

The Silky Terrier should be slightly longer than tall (about one fifth longer that the height at withers). This is a dog that was historically used for hunting and killing rodents, so its body should have enough substance to fit this role. The coat requires quite a lot of regular grooming and shampooing to retain its silkiness.

Silky terrier has strong and wedge-shaped head. The eyes are small and almond shaped. According to the standards, light-colored eyes are considered a fault. The ears are small and carried erect. Silky terrier has a high-set tail and small, almost catlike, feet. The coat should be long, but not so long to approach floor length. The hair on the face and ears is normally cut.


History
The ancestors of the Australian Silky Terrier include the Yorkshire Terrier (originally from Scotland before being considered to be from England) and the Australian Terrier,(which descends from the rough coated type terriers brought from Great Britain to Australia in the early 1800s) few records to indicate whether early dogs were just Australian Terriers born with silky fur, or whether there was an attempt to create a separate breed. According to the American Kennel Club, the breed began at the end of the 1800s when Yorkshire Terriers were crossed with the Australian Terriers. At first the breed was known as the Sydney Silky, as it was found primarily in the city of Sydney, Australia. Although most other Australian breeds were working dogs, the Silky Terrier was bred primarily to be an urban pet and companion, although it is also known for killing snakes in Australia.

Up until 1929 the Australian Terrier, the Australian Silky Terrier, and the Yorkshire Terrier were not clearly defined. Dogs of three different breeds might be born in the same litter, to be separated by appearance into the different types once they were grown. After 1932 in Australia, further crossbreeding was discouraged, and in 1955 the breed's name officially became the Australian Silky Terrier. The breed was recognised by the Australian National Kennel Council in 1958 in the Toy Group.

During and after World War II American servicemen that had been stationed in Australia brought back to the United States a few Silky Terriers. Newspaper photographs of the breed in 1954 caused an upsurge of popularity and hundreds of Silkies were imported from Australia to the United States.The American Kennel Club recognised the breed as the Silky Terrier in 1959, as did the United Kennel Club (US) in 1965; it is also recognised as the Silky Terrier by the Canadian Kennel Club. The breed is recognised by all the major kennel clubs in the English speaking world, and internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale as breed number 236. It may also be recognised by various minor kennel clubs and internet breed registry businesses.

Breed Groups
The Australian Silky Terrier is a terrier, but is usually placed in the Toy Group rather than the Terrier Group due to its small size. As breed groupings are done mostly to organise groups of breeds for dog shows, it is safer for the little dogs to be with others their own size, rather than with larger dogs. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale has a special Section of the Terrier Group that includes only the smallest dogs, while other kennel clubs place the breed in the Toy Group, but universally everyone agrees that the breed's type is Terrier.

Health
The Silky is prone to several disorders including luxating patella, tracheal collapse, and epilepsy. These dogs are very sensitive to voice tone. A loud deep tone will frighten them, and a high squeaky shriek will make them freeze. The Silky Terrier enjoys back scratches and can be rendered immobile by scratching the hindquarters.


Temperament
The breed standard describe the ideal Australian Silky Terrier temperament as keenly alert and active. They love to be given chances to run and play, but must have a tightly fenced yard. They also enjoy brisk walks and playing ball. The Silky is able to do well in an apartment, although they are also an active indoor breed. It is important they are kept busy and social to discourage boredom. They are also rodent hunters.


Care
The Silky Terrier's coat is highly susceptible to tangles and matting. They require daily brushing and combing. This breed requires a deep commitment from their owners. To keep the coat lustrous regular shampooing is necessary. Using an Avocado and Oatmeal Shampoo will help alleviate the itchy, dry skin of this breed. For this particular breed, you should take your pet to the groomers every 3 weeks and have his teeth brushed while there. Terriers are known to have teeth and gum problems. As well you should keep your terrier on a harness leash not a collar due to the terriers weak and collapsible trachea or windpipe.

Cairn Terrier Dog Breed

The Cairn Terrier is one of the oldest terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish  Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs. It is used for hunting and burrowing prey among the cairns.

Although the breed had existed long before, the name Cairn Terrier was a compromise suggestion after the breed was originally brought to official shows in the United Kingdom in 1909 under the name Short-haired Skye terriers. This name was not acceptable to The Kennel Club due to opposition from Skye Terrier breeders, and the name Cairn Terrier was suggested as an alternative. The Cairn Terrier quickly became popular and has remained so ever since. They are usually left-pawed. Cairn Terriers are ratters. In Ireland they would search the cairns (large rock piles) for rats and other rodents. Thus if one is kept as a house hold pet it will do the job of a cat, specifically catching and killing mice, rabbits, and squirrels.



Appearance

Weight:     20–25 pounds (6–8 kg)    
Height:     10–13 inches (25–33 cm)    
Coat:     Abundant shaggy outer coat, soft downy undercoat
Litter size:     6-10
Life span:     12–15 years

The breed standard can be found Cairn Terrier Club of America website.[1]  The current standard was approved on May 10, 1938 and was adopted from The Kennel Club (UK). According to the American standard, dogs should weigh 14 pounds and stand 10" at the withers. Females should weigh 13 pounds and stand 9.5" at the withers. A Cairn's appearance may vary from this standard. It is common for a Cairn to stand between 9 and 13 inches (23–33 cm) at the withers and weigh 20 to 25 pounds (6 to 8 kg). European Cairns tend to be larger than American Cairns. Due to irresponsible breeding, many Cairns available today are much smaller or much larger than the breed standard. Cairns that have had puppy mill backgrounds can weigh as little as 7 pounds or as much as 27 pounds.

The Cairn Terrier has a harsh, weather-resistant outer coat that can be cream, wheaten, red, sandy, gray, or brindled in any of these colors. Pure black, black and tan, and white are not permitted by many kennel clubs. While registration of white Cairns was once permitted, after 1917 the American Kennel Club required them to be registered as West Highland White Terriers. A notable characteristic of Cairns is that brindled Cairns frequently change color throughout their lifetime. It is not uncommon for a brindled Cairn to become progressively more black or silver as it ages. The Cairn is double-coated, with a soft, dense undercoat and a harsh outer coat. A well-groomed Cairn has a rough-and-ready appearance, free of artifice or exaggeration.Also it has the appearance of its cousin the West Highland White Terreir


Temperament
Cairn Terriers are adventurous, intelligent, strong, and loyal. Like most terriers, they love to dig after real or imagined prey. Cairn Terriers have a strong prey instinct and will need comprehensive training. However, they are intelligent and, although willful, can be trained. Training of the Cairn Terrier has the best results when training as a puppy, as they become unwillfully stubborn. Although it is often said that they are disobedient, this is not the case provided correct training is applied.

Cairns are working dogs and are still used as such in parts of Scotland. Cairn Terriers generally adapt well to children and are suitable family dogs.

Cairne terriers are also found to be nervous and frightened when brought to a new home but with correct training he/she will finally break out of it.

Lakeland Terrier dog breed


The Lakeland Terrier is a dog breed, one of many Terrier breeds, that originated in the Lake District of England as a descendant of the old English Black and Tan and Fell Terriers for the purpose of hunting vermin.

The Lakeland Terrier originated in the Lake District of Cumberland, England near the Scottish border in the 1800s. He is related to several terrier breeds and is one of the oldest working terrier breeds still in use today. His diverse ancestors include the now extinct Old English Black and Tan terrier, the early Dandie Dinmont Terrier, Bedlington Terrier and Border Terrier.

For generations, the Lakeland has been used in the Lake District for the purpose of exterminating the fell foxes which raid the farmer’s sheep fold during the lambing season. Whereas most terrier breeds have only to bolt their quarry, or to mark it by baying, the Lakeland must be able to kill the foxes in their lair. Despite his reputation for courage and tenacity, the Lakeland is a gentle and loving companion.


Appearance
The Lakeland is similar to the Welsh Terrier being slightly shorter and considerably finer-boned. Grizzle Lakelands are often mistaken as "Miniature Airdales". This breed has thick, hard wiry outer coat and a soft undercoat. The Lakeland comes in 10 colors which are black and tan, blue and tan, liver and tan, tan grizzle, red, red grizzle, wheaten, liver, blue, or black. They have an upright tail. Lakeland Terriers grow to between 33 and 38cm (13 to 14.5 inches) in height measured to the withers with a weight of between 7 and 8 kg (16 to 17 lbs). They are known for their minimal shedding of hair.

The eyes are small and dark colored. The nose and pads of the feet are black except in liver colored dogs where the nose and pad coloring will be liver colored. This breed has little to no shedding (see Moult).


Temperament
The dogs are friendly, bold, and confident. Shyness is very atypical, as is aggressiveness. Intelligent and independent minded, especially when going after prey, they are quick to learn and easy to train, though Lakelands seem to exhibit 'selective deafness' when their interest level is aroused. They are not "yappy," barking only when they have reason.

History
In 1925 the breed attained homogeneity following a cross-breeding with the Fox Terrier and the Airedale Terrier. The Lakeland Terrier is suitable for fox hunting and rabbit hunting, and are especially talented hunters of vermin.

In the Lake District of the UK, the mountainous, rocky terrain is unsuitable for hunting fox on horseback and foxes were hunted on foot. It has been suggested that the lakeland terrier's great stamina derives from running all day with the hounds, unlike his close cousin, the fox terrier, who would have been carried in a saddle bag to be released only when the fox had gone to earth.

The working dog version of the Lakeland is often known as the Fell Terrier or Patterdale Terrier.

Yorkshire Terrier dog breed

Yorkshire Terrier dog breed


The Yorkshire Terrier is a small dog breed of Terrier type, developed in the 1800s in the historical area of Yorkshire  in England. The defining features of the breed are its small size and its silky blue and tan coat. The breed is nicknamed Yorkie and is placed in the Toy Terrier section of the Terrier Group by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and in the Toy Group or Companion Group by other kennel clubs, although all agree that the breed is a terrier. A winning showdog and a popular companion dog, the Yorkshire Terrier has also been part of the development of other breeds, such as the Australian Silky Terrier.

Coat
For adult Yorkshire Terriers, the importance is placed on its coat colour, its quality, and its texture.The hair must be glossy, fine, straight, and silky. Traditionally the coat is grown-out long and is parted down the middle of the back, but "must never impede movement."

Yorkies have very soft coats. Yorkies have two types of coats; a silky or a soft. The silky coats are the coats of the show dogs. The soft coats are short and you do not have to brush them very often.

From the back of the neck to the base of the tail, the coat should be a dark gray to a steel-blue, and the hair on the tail should be a darker blue. On the head, high chest, and legs, the hair should be a bright, rich tan, darker at the roots than in the middle, that shades into a lighter tan at the tips. Also, in adult dogs, there should be no dark hairs intermingled with any of the tan coloured fur.

Adult Yorkshire Terriers that have other coat colours than the above, or that have wooly or extra fine coats, are still considered to be Yorkshire Terriers, and will be just as good of a companion as a dog with the correct coat. The only difference is that a typical Yorkshire Terriers should not be bred.In addition, care may be more difficult for "wooley" or "cottony" textured coats, or coats that are overly fine. One of the reasons given for not breeding "off-coloured" Yorkies is that the colour could be linked to a genetic defect that may affect the dog's health.


Puppy coats


A newborn Yorkie puppy is born black with tan points on the muzzle, above the eyes, around the legs and feet and toes, the inside of the ears, and the underside of the tail.Occasionally Yorkies are born with a white "star" on the chest or on one or more toes. These markings fade with age, and are usually gone within a few months. A white "star" on the chest is generally an indication that the puppy will be a good coat grower in quantity, but not necessarially quality

It may take up to three years or more for the coat to reach its final colour.P. H. Coombs, writing in 1891, complained about show wins awarded to puppies, when the dog's coat does not fully come in until three or four years old, "and the honour of winning such a prize (for a puppy) can therefore be of but little practical benefit to the owner" since the adult dog's colour cannot be exactly predicted.

Hypoallergenic coats
The typical fine, straight, and silky Yorkshire Terrier coat  has also been listed by many popular dog information websites as being hypoallergenic. In comparison with many other breeds, Yorkies do not shed to the same degree, only losing small amounts when bathed or brushed. All dogs shed, and it is the dog's dander and saliva that trigger most allergic reactions. Allergists do recognise that at times a particular allergy patient will be able to tolerate a particular dog, but they agree that "the luck of the few with their pets cannot be stretched to fit all allergic people and entire breeds of dogs."The Yorkshire Terrier coat is said to fall out only when brushed or broken, or just said to not shed. Although neither of those statements agree with what biologists, veterinarians, and allergists know about dog fur, allergists "think there really are differences in protein production between dogs that may help one patient and not another", meaning that some allergic people may not have allergic reactions to a specific dog, like the Yorkie.

Coat care

If the coat is the correct silky texture, maintenance for it is relatively easy, requiring a daily brushing and a bath every month. Owners may trim the fur short for easier care. For shows, the coat is left long, and may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a neater appearance. Hair on the feet and the tips of ears can also be trimmed.

The traditional long coat is extremely high maintenance. To prevent breakage, the coat may be wrapped in rice paper, tissue paper, or plastic, after a light oiling with a coat oil. The oil has to be washed out once a month and the wraps must be fixed periodically during the week to prevent them from sliding down and breaking the hair. Elaborate care of the beautiful coat dates from the earliest days of the breed. In 1878, John Walsh described similar preparations: the coat is "well greased" with coconut oil, the dog is bathed weekly, and the dog's feet are "carefully kept in stockings."


Other colors


The Yorkshire Terrier is a tan dog with a blue saddle. Parti colours exist, although they are not correct for the breed standard. The parti colour coat Is white with black/blue and tan. It's very rare to get a a parti colour yorkie, and if they are found they tend to be very expensive. The breed is defined by its colour, and colours promoted as "rare" may indicate health problems or cross-breeding with other breeds of other colours.The AKC registration form for Yorkshire Terriers allows for four choices: blue and tan, blue and gold, black and tan, black and gold. Colour alone will not affect whether or not a dog is a good companion and pet. Even though off-coloured Yorkshire Terriers are advertised at premium prices, being of an unusual or untypical colour is neither new, desirable, nor exotic.

Until recently, mismarked Yorkshire Terriers could be crossed with Biewer Terriers, a new breed originated in Germany from parti coloured Yorkshire Terriers.Although the American Kennel Club will not deny registration of a Yorkshire Terrier on colour alone, the Yorkshire Terrier Club of America has a directive that "any solid colour or combination of colours other than blue and tan" for adult dogs is a disqualification, and "dogs of solid colour, unusual combination of colours, and parti-colours should be disqualified."


Character
The ideal Yorkshire Terrier character or "personality" is described with a "carriage very upright" and "conveying an important air".Though small, the Yorkshire Terrier is intelligent and active, loves attention and should not show the soft temperament seen in lapdogs.





Boldness
The Yorkshire Terrier breed is bold and active.They are surprisingly brave for such a small breed. They are, however, also quite loyal and affectionate. Yorkshire Terrier puppies are especially loving and cuddly with their owners in their first 2-3 years.




History
The Yorkshire Terrier originated in Yorkshire (and the adjoining Lancashire), a rugged region in northern England.In the mid-nineteenth century, workers from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small terriers. Breeding of the Yorkshire terrier was "principally accomplished by the people--mostly operatives in cotton and woolen mills--in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire."Details are scarce. Mrs. A. Foster is quoted as saying in 1886, "If we consider that the mill operatives who originated the breed...were nearly all ignorant men, unaccustomed to imparting information for public use, we may see some reason why reliable facts have not been easily attained."


What is known is that the breed sprang from three different dogs, a male named Old Crab and a female named Kitty, and another female whose name is not known.The Paisley Terrier, a smaller version of the Skye Terrier that was bred for a beautiful long silky coat, also figured into the early dogs. Some authorities believed that the Maltese was used as well."They were all originally bred from Scotch terriers (note: meaning dogs from Scotland, not today's Scottish Terrier) and shown as such...the name Yorkshire Terrier was given to them on account of their being improved so much in Yorkshire."Yorkshire Terriers were shown in a dog show category (class) at the time called "Rough and Broken-coated, Broken-haired Scotch and Yorkshire Terriers". Hugh Dalziel, writing in 1878, says that "the classification of these dogs at shows and in the Kennel Club Stud Book is confusing and absurd" in lumping together these different types.


In the early days of the breed, "almost anything in the shape of a Terrier having a long coat with blue on the body and fawn or silver coloured head and legs, with tail docked and ears trimmed, was received and admired as a Yorkshire Terrier".But in the late 1860s, a popular Paisley type Yorkshire Terrier showdog named Huddersfield Ben, owned by a woman living in Yorkshire, Mary Ann Foster, was seen at dog shows throughout Great Britain, and defined the breed type for the Yorkshire Terrier.


Welsh Terrier dog breed


The Welsh Terrier is a breed  of dog, one of many British terrier breeds. It was originally bred for hunting fox, rodents and badger, but during the last century it has mainly been bred for showing. Despite this, it has retained its terrier strength of character and so requires firm, non-aggressive handling. The Welsh Terrier originates from Wales and has been claimed to be the oldest existing dog breed in the UK according to the research of Julian Calder and Alastair Bruce for their book, 'The Oldest - in celebration of Britain's living history'. The Welsh Terrier was a latecomer to the British show-ring (being primarily a working dog) and was not officially registered until the 1800s. It is currently on the UK Kennel Clubs list of breeds that are in danger of dying out, having as few as 300 or so pups registered annually, compared to the nations most popular breeds that are registered in their tens of thousands each year.

 Appearance
The Welsh Terrier is colored tan on the head, legs and underbelly while having a black or sometimes grizzle saddle. The breed is a sturdy and compact dog of about medium size that can grow up to 15.5 in. (39.5 cm) with a weight of 20-22 lbs (9–10 kg). The tail is usually docked and is more preferred in order to complete the image of a square dog that is as tall as it is long. The body shape is rectangular, with elongated, "brick-like" face. This shape is formed by the whiskers and beard.

The hair contains two layers, an undercoat that insulates and an abrasive fur on top that protects against dirt, rain, and wind. Welsh Terriers are born mostly all black and during the first year they change the color to standard black and tan grizzle.

This breed does not shed (see Moult).

An undocked Welsh Terrier tail is only an inch or so longer than a docked tail and does not make a great deal of difference to the overall appearance. The coat does not moult out but old hairs will eventually be stripped out through play and movement etc if the coat is not regularly raked. Ungroomed coats can also fade and thin out as the old hair loses colour and texture. to keep a moult free house and a good coat on your Welsh Terrier it is necessary to rake out the coat on a regular basis. Welsh terriers need some grooming. Their fur grows a little long.

Generally speaking, the Welsh Terrier looks quite a bit like a compact Airedale Terrier.


Temperament
The Welsh Terrier has a typical terrier temperament. In the right hands, it is a happy, lively, and seldom shy or timid dog, but sometimes can have an attitude. Dogs of this breed can be devoted friends and can function either as city dogs or as country dogs.

Welsh Terriers were developed to hunt independently and this required that they be very assertive and stoic dogs. As a consequence, developing obedience in a Welsh Terrier is a long term proposition and one has to constantly work on and reinforce the training.

A Welsh Terrier is full of energy and requires regular exercise. A run around the yard during the day is insufficient. They become yappy, and if bored, they may explore and potentially cause mischief and damage. Welsh Terriers need a challenge to keep them entertained. For example, they love chasing toys and love swimming (a good example would be lake activities with their families).

Welsh Terriers get along well with children; they love to play and follow a child as it plays, however, they will often tug at pant legs and can knock young ones off their feet. If they are around young children at an early age, they will easily learn to play more gently.

As with all breeds, it is important to socialize Welsh Terriers as early as possible to a wide range of dogs, people, and experiences.

Health
The body of the Welsh Terrier is normal and healthy so that the physique is durable and lasting. Some studies have suggested a genetic predisposition to Glaucoma, as yet inconclusive . A healthy Welsh Terrier lives around 12 to 13 years on average and stays active and alert up to a high age if it is well taken care of and healthy.

Scottish Terrier dog breed

Scottish Terrier dog breed


The Scottish Terrier (also known as the Aberdeen Terrier), popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog. Initially one of the highland breeds of Terrier that were grouped under the name of Skye Terrier, it is one of five breeds of terrier that originated in Scotland, the other four being the modern Skye, Cairn, Dandie Dinmont, and West Highland White Terrier. They are an independent and rugged breed with a wiry outer coat and a soft dense undercoat. The Fourth Earl of Dumbarton nicknamed the breed "the diehard." The modern breed is said to be able to trace its lineage back to a single female, named Splinter II.

They are a small breed of Terrier with a distinctive shape and have had many roles in popular culture. They have been owned by a variety of celebrities, including the 43rd President George W. Bush, and are well known for being a playing piece in the board game Monopoly. Described as a territorial, feisty dog, they can make a good watchdog but tend to be very loyal to their family. In health issues, Scottish Terriers can be more prone to bleeding disorders, joint disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergies, and cancer than some other breeds of dog and there is a condition named after the breed called Scotty cramp. They are also one of the more successful dog breeds at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show with a recent best in show in 2010.

Appearance
A Scottish Terrier is a small but resilient terrier with a muscular body and neck (a typical neck circumference is 14 inches), often appearing to be barrel chested. They are short-legged, cobby and sturdily built, with a long head in proportion to their size. The Scottie should have large paws adapted for digging.Erect ears and tail are salient features of the breed. Their eyes are small, bright and almond-shaped and dark brown or nearly black in colour.

Height at withers for both sexes should be roughly 25 cm (9.8 in), and the length of back from withers to tail is roughly 28 cm (11 in). Generally a well-balanced Scottie dog should weigh from 8.5 to 10 kg (19 to 22 lb) and a female from 8 to 9.5 kg (18 to 21 lb). It is about 10 to 11 inches (25 to 28 cm) in height.

The Scottie typically has a hard, wiry, long, weather-resistant outer coat and a soft dense under coat. The coat is typically trimmed and blended, with a longer coat on the beard, eyebrows, legs and lower body — traditionally shaggy-to-the-ground. The head, ears, tail and back are traditionally trimmed short.

The coat colors range from dark gray to jet black, or 'Brindle' (a mix of black and brown). Scotties with 'Wheaten' (straw to nearly white) coats sometimes occur, but should not be confused with the Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier or West Highland White Terrier.

Temperament
Scotties are territorial, alert, quick moving and feisty, perhaps even more so than other terrier breeds.The breed is known to be independent and self-assured, playful, intelligent and has been nicknamed the 'Diehard' because of its rugged nature and endless determination.The 'Diehard' nickname was originally given to it in the 19th century by George, the fourth Earl of Dumbarton.The Earl had a famous pack of Scottish Terriers, so brave that they were named “Diehards”. They were supposed to have inspired the name of his Regiment, The Royal Scots, "Dumbarton’s Diehards".

Scotties, while being described as very loving, have also been described as stubborn.They are sometimes described as an aloof breed, although it has been noted that they tend to be very loyal to their family and are known to attach themselves to one or two people.

It has been suggested that the Scottish Terrier can make a good watchdog due to its tendency to bark only when necessary and because it is typically reserved with strangers, although this is not always the case.They have been described as a fearless breed that may be aggressive around other dogs unless introduced at an early age.Scottish Terriers were originally bred to hunt and fight badgers. Therefore, the Scottie is prone to dig as well as chase small vermin, such as Squirrels, rats, and mice.

Health
Two genetic health concerns seen in the breed are von Willebrand disease (vWD) and craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO); Scottie cramp, patellar luxation and cerebellar abiotrophy are also sometimes seen in this breed. Common eye conditions seen in a variety of breeds such as cataracts and glaucoma can appear in Scotties as they age. There are no specific conditions relating the skin that affect the breed, but they can be affected by common dog related conditions such as parasites and mange.Scotties typically live from 11 and 13 years.

Cancer in Scottish Terriers
Scottish Terriers have a greater chance of developing some cancers than other purebreds. According to research by the Veterinary Medical Data Program (1986), six cancers that Scotties appeared to be more at risk for (when compared to other breeds) are: (in descending order) bladder cancer and other transitional cell carcinomas of the lower urinary tract; malignant melanoma; gastric carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; lymphosarcoma and nasal carcinoma. Other cancers that are known to commonly affect Scotties include mast cell sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma.

Research has suggested that Scottish Terriers are 20 times more likely to get bladder cancer than other breeds and the most common kind of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC).Dr. Deborah Knapp of Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine has commented "TCC usually occurs in older dogs (average age 11 years) and is more common in females (2:1 ratio of females to males)."Symptoms of TCC are blood in the urine, straining to urinate, and frequent urination — although owners noticing any of these symptoms should also be aware that the same symptoms may also be indicative of a urinary tract infection.

The most common and effective form of treatment for TCC is Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that "allows the cancer cells to kill themselves." In order to help prevent cancer in a dog, an owner should ensure that their dog has minimal exposure to herbicides, pesticides, solvents and cigarette smoke; use caution when treating dogs with some flea medications; provide a healthy, vitamin-rich diet (low in carbohydrates, high in vegetables) and plenty of exercise.


Scottie cramp
Scottie cramp is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder which inhibits the dog's ability to walk. It is caused by a defect in the pathways in the brain that control muscle contraction due to a low level of serotonin in the body.Typically symptoms only show when the particular dog is under some degree of stress. The front legs are pushed out to the side, the back arches and the rear legs overflex, causing the dog to fall should they be moving at speed. The condition is not seizure related, and the dog remains conscious throughout the event, with symptoms abating once the cause of the stress has been removed.

It does not worsen with age, and Vitamin E, Diazepam and Prozac have all been shown to be effective treatments should it be required. Serotonin inhibitors such as aspirin or penicillin have been found to make the condition worsen. Scotty cramp is found in other breeds of Terrier, including the Cesky Terrier. "Episodic Falling", a condition found in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels is considered to be similar to this disorder.

Craniomandibular osteopathy
Also known as "Lion Jaw", "Westy Jaw" or "Scotty Jaw", this condition of craniomandibular osteopathy is caused by excessive bone growth in the bottom jaw, usually occurring between four to seven months of age. Like Scottie Cramp, it is a autosomal recessive hereditary disorder, and can cause discomfort to the dog when it attempts to chew. The progression of the condition usually slows down between eleven to thirteen months of age, and is sometimes followed by a slow partial or complete regression.

This condition has also been seen in other breeds of dog, such as the West Highland White Terrier, Cairn Terrier, Boston Terrier, as well as some larger breeds such as Bullmastiffs.


von Willebrand's disease
Von Willebrand's disease is a hereditary bleeding disorder found in both dogs and humans. It is caused by a lack of von Willebrand factor which plays a role in the clotting process of blood. This can cause abnormal platelet function and prolonged bleeding times. Affected dogs can be prone to nose bleeds, and increased bleeding following trauma or surgery. There are three types of this condition with Type I being the most common, while Type II and III being rarer, but more severe. Type I von Willebrand's disease is relatively common in the Scottish Terrier.

Type I is more widespread in Doberman Pinscher, but is as common in the Shetland Sheepdog as the Scottish Terrier. The condition appears in most breeds to some extent, but other breeds with an increased risk include the Golden Retriever, German Shepherd Dog, Basset Hound and Manchester Terrier.


History
Initial grouping of several of the highland terriers (including the Scottie) under the generic name Skye terriers caused some confusion in the breed’s lineage. There is disagreement over whether the Skye terriers mentioned in early 16th century records actually descended from forerunners of the Scottie or vice versa. It is certain, however, that Scotties and West Highland White Terriers are closely related — both their forefathers originated from the Blackmount region of Perthshire and the Moor of Rannoch. Scotties were originally bred to hunt and kill vermin on farms and to hunt badgers and foxes in the Highlands of Scotland.

The actual origin of a breed as old as the Scottish Terrier is obscure and undocumented. The first written records about a dog of similar description to the Scottish Terrier dates from 1436, when Don Leslie described them in his book The History of Scotland 1436-1561. Two hundred years later, Sir Joshua Reynolds painted a portrait of a young girl caressing a dog similar in appearance to the modern-day Scottie.King James VI of Scotland was an important historical figure featuring in the Scottish Terrier's history. In the 17th century, when King James VI became James I of England, he sent six terriers — thought to be forerunners of the Scottish terrier — to a French monarch as a gift. His love and adoration for the breed increased their popularity throughout the world.

Many dog writers after the early 1800s seem to agree that there were two varieties of terrier existing in Britain at the time — a rough-haired so-called Scotch Terrier and a smooth-haired English Terrier.Thomas Brown, in his Biological Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs (1829), states that "the Scotch terrier is certainly the purest in point of breed and the (smooth) English seems to have been produced by a cross from him".Brown went on to describe the Scotch Terrier as "low in stature, with a strong muscular body, short stout legs, a head large in proportion to the body" and was "generally of a sandy colour or black" with a "long, matted and hard" coat. Although the Scotch Terrier described here is more generic than specific to a breed, it asserts the existence of a small, hard, rough-coated terrier developed for hunting small game in the Scottish Highlands in the early 1800s; a description that shares characteristics with what was once known as the Aberdeen Terrier and is today known as the Scottish Terrier. In addition, the paintings of Sir Edwin Landseer and an 1835 lithograph entitled "Scottish Terriers at Work on a Cairn in the West Highlands" both depict Scottie type terriers very similar to those described in the first Scottish Terrier Standard.

In the 1800s, the Highlands of Scotland, including the Isle of Skye, were abundant with terriers originally known by the generic term "short-haired" or "little Skye terriers."Towards the end of the 19th century, it was decided to separate these Scottish terriers and develop pure bloodlines and specific breeds. Originally, the breeds were separated into two categories – Dandie Dinmont Terriers and Skye Terriers (not the Skye Terrier known today, but a generic name for a large group of terriers with differing traits all said to originate from the Isle of Skye). The Birmingham England dog show of 1860 was the first to offer classes for these groups of terriers. They continued to be exhibited in generic groups for several years and these groups included the ancestors of today's Scottish Terrier. Recorded history and the initial development of the breed started in the late 1870s with the development of dog shows. The exhibition and judging of dogs required comparison to a breed standard and thus the appearance and temperament of the Scottie was written down for the first time.Eventually, the Skye Terriers were further divided into what are known today as the Scottish Terrier, Skye Terrier, West Highland White Terrier and Cairn Terrier.

While fanciers sought to identify and standardize the breed and its description through the late 1800s, the Scottish terrier was known by many different names: the Highland, the Cairn, Diehard, and most often, the Aberdeen Terrier — named because of the abundant number of the dogs in the area and because a J.A. Adamson of Aberdeen successfully exhibited his dogs during the 1870s. Roger Rough, a dog owned by Adamson, Tartan, a dog owned by Mr Paynton Piggott, Bon Accord, a dog owned by Messrs. Ludlow and Bromfield and Splinter II, owned by Mr Ludlow, were early winners of dog exhibitions and are the four dogs from which all Scottish Terrier pedigrees ultimately begin. It is often said that all present day Scotties stem from a single bitch, Splinter II, and two sires. In her book, The New Scottish Terrier, Cindy Cooke refers to Splinter II as the "foundation matron of the modern Scottish Terrier." Cooke goes on to say "For whatever reason, early breeders line bred on this bitch to the virtual exclusion of all others. Mated to Tartan, she produced Worry, the dam of four champions. Rambler, her son by Bonaccord, sired the two founding sires of the breed, Ch. Dundee (out of Worry) and Ch. Alistair (out of a Dundee daughter)" Show champions on both sides of the Atlantic descend from Splinter and her sires.

Captain Gordon Murray and S.E. Shirley were responsible for setting the type in 1879.Shortly afterwards, in 1879, Scotties were for the first time exhibited at Alexander Palace in England, while the following year they began to be classified in much the same way as is done today. The first written standard of the breed was drafted by J.B. Morrison and D.J. Thomson Gray and appeared in Vero Shaw's Illustrated Book of The Dog, published in 1880; it was extremely influential in setting both breed type and name. The standard described the breed's colouring as "Grey, Grizzle or Brindle", as the typically Black colouring of Scotties did not become fashionable or favoured until the 1900s.

In 1881 the "Scottish Terrier Club of England" was founded, being the first club dedicated to the breed. The club secretary, H.J. Ludlow, is responsible for greatly popularising the breed in the southern parts of Great Britain. The "Scottish Terrier Club of Scotland" was not founded until 1888, seven years after the English club.Following the formation of the English and Scottish clubs there followed several years of disagreement regarding the breed's official standard.The issue was finally settled by a revised standard in 1930, which was based on four prepotent dogs. The dogs were Robert and James Chapman's Heather Necessity, Albourne Barty, bred by AG Cowley, Albourne Annie Laurie, bred by Miss Wijk and Miss Wijk's Marksman of Docken (the litter brother of Annie Laurie).These four dogs and their offspring modified the look of the Scottie, particularly the length of the head, closeness to the ground and the squareness of body. Their subsequent success in the show ring led to them becoming highly sought after by the British public and breeders. As such, the modified standard completely revolutionized the breed.This new standard was subsequently recognised by the Kennel Club UK circa 1930.

Scotties were introduced to America in the early 1890s but it was not until the years between World War I and World War II that the breed became popular. A club was formed in 1900 and a standard written in 1925. The Scottish Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1934. By 1936, Scotties were the third most popular breed in the United States. Although they did not permanently stay in fashion, they continue to enjoy a steady popularity with a large segment of the dog-owning public across the world.

Scottish Terriers have won best in show at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show more than any other breed except for the Wire Fox Terrier, a total of nine times.These victories began in 1911 with a win by Ch. Tickle Em Jock and include recent victories such as in 1995 when Ch. Gaelforce Post Script won, and in 2010 with a victory by Ch. Roundtown Mercedes Of Maryscot.

Barney, the Scottish Terrier belonging to former President George W. Bush, on the presidential stand

Famous Scotties and popular culture
The Scottie is the only breed of dog that has lived in the White House more than three times.President Franklin D. Roosevelt was renowned for owning a Scottie named Fala, a gift from his cousin, Margaret Stuckley.The President loved Fala so much that he rarely went anywhere without him. Roosevelt had several Scotties before Fala, including one named Duffy and another named Mr. Duffy. Eleanor Roosevelt had a Scottish Terrier named Meggie when the family entered the White House in 1933. More recently, President George W. Bush has owned two black Scottish terriers, Barney and Miss Beazley. Barney starred in nine films produced by the White House, including Barney Cam VII: A Red, White and Blue Christmas.Other famous people who are known to have owned Scotties include: Queen Victoria, Eva Braun, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Ed Whitfield and President of Poland, Lech Kaczynski.Actress Tatum O'Neal owned a Scottish Terrier. She was said to be so saddened by her dog's death to cancer and old age that she relapsed into drugs.

The Scottie is also renowned for being featured in the popular board game, Monopoly, as a player token. When the game was first created in the 1930s, Scotties were one of the most popular pets in the United States, and it is also one of the most popular Monopoly game tokens, according to Matt Collins, vice president of marketing for Hasbro.

A Scottish Terrier and a West Highland White Terrier are featured on the Black & White whisky label, and the breed has been used as the mascot for the Chum brand of dog food, appearing on both the brand's packaging and TV commercials. Scottish Terriers are also part of the emblem for the clothing line Juicy Couture and Radley handbags.

In May 2007, Carnegie Mellon University named the Scottish Terrier its official mascot. The Scottie had been a long-running unofficial mascot of the university, whose founder's Scottish heritage is also honored by the official athletic nickname of "Tartans."During the opening of the May, 2007, Carnegie Mellon commencement ceremony, keynote speaker Bill Cosby, a Scottie fancier, led the university's new mascot, named Scottie, to the speaker's platform.Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia also uses the Scottie as their mascot.

Terrier Dog Breed


 Terrier Dog Breed

A terrier is a dog of any one of many breeds  or landraces  of terrier type, which are typically small, wiry, very active and fearless dogs. Terrier breeds vary greatly in size from just a couple of pounds to weighing over 70 pounds and are usually categorized by size or function. There are five different groups with each group having several different breeds.

History
Most terrier breeds were developed in Great Britain and Ireland. They were used to control rats, rabbits, and foxes both over and under the ground. Some larger terriers were also used to hunt badgers. In fact, the word terrier comes from the Middle French terrier, derived from the Latin terra, meaning earth. The Kerry Blue Terrier and Airedale, however, are particularly noted for tackling river rats and otters in deep water. Different localities raised terriers suited to their hunting or vermin control needs. Terriers were crossed with hunting dogs, fighting dogs, and other terriers. In the mid 1800s, with the advent of dog shows, various breeds were refined from the older purpose-bred dogs. All of today's terrier breeds are bred primarily as pets.

The gameness of the early hunting terriers was exploited by using them in sporting contests. Initially, terriers competed in events such as clearing a pit of rats. The dog that was fastest in killing all the rats won. In the 1700s some terriers were crossed with hounds to improve their hunting, and some with fighting dog breeds to "intensify tenacity and increase courage".Some of the crosses with fighting dogs, Bull and Terrier crosses, were used in the blood sport of dog fighting. Modern pet breeds developed from the Bull and Terrier, such as the Miniature Bull Terrier, are listed by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) under Bull type terriers.

Genetics of origins

Genetic analysis shows that most terriers are in the "modern/hunting" genetic cluster of dog breeds developed from the same pool of ancestors in Europe in the 1800s. A few terriers are found in the "mastiff" genetic cluster with Pomeranians, Labrador Retrievers, and other large-headed dogs, and the Tibetan Terrier is found in the older grouping of Asian and African dogs, along with the Pekingese.

Today, most terriers are kept as companion dogs and family pets. They are generally loyal and affectionate to their owners but can be "big characters" requiring a firm hand.

Appearance




Terriers range greatly in appearance from very small, light bodied, smooth coated dogs such as the English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan), which weighs as little as 2.7kg (6lbs), to the very largest rough coated Airedale Terriers, which can be up to 32kg (70lbs) or more.




Terrier types and groups
In the 1700s in Britain, only two types of terriers were recognized, long- and short-legged.

Today, terriers are often informally categorized by size or by function:

    * Working terriers (Hunting types): Still used to find, track, or trail quarry, especially underground, and sometimes to bolt the quarry. Modern examples include the Jack Russell Terrier and the Patterdale Terrier. The original types of hunting terriers include
          o Fell terriers: breeds developed in northern England to assist in the killing of foxes, and
          o Hunt terriers: breeds developed in southern England to locate and kill or bolt foxes during a traditional mounted fox hunt.

    * Toy terriers: Bred "down" from larger terriers, these terriers are shown in the Toy or Companion group. Included among these breeds are the English Toy Terrier and the Yorkshire Terrier. While small, they retain true terrier character and are not submissive "lap dogs".

    * Bull type Terriers: The Bull and Terrier types were originally combinations of bulldogs and terriers as general mixed breed bull-baiting and pit dogs. In the late 1800s, they were refined into separate breeds that combined terrier and bulldog qualities. Except for Boston Terriers, they are generally included in kennel clubs' Terrier Group. Responsible breeders have bred modern Bull type terrier breeds, such as the Bull terrier, into suitable family dogs and show terriers. A descendant of the Bull and Terrier types, the American Pit Bull Terriers, are among the dog breeds still raised for illegal dog fighting.

Breed Groups

Breed Groups are groupings of similar breeds of dog by kennel clubs; Breed Groups are not scientific classifications, and breeds included in a Breed Group will vary from club to club. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale, The Kennel Club (UK), Canadian Kennel Club, American Kennel Club, Australian National Kennel Council, New Zealand Kennel Club, and United Kennel Club as well as with the myriad hunting and pet registries may all vary in which breeds of terrier are included in the various Breed Groups that the club uses. The Miniature Schnauzer is placed in the Terrier Group by the American Kennel Club but not categorised as Terrier by the Kennel Club (UK), which places all Schnauzers in the Utility Group. Boston Terriers are true terriers although the Kennel Club also places them in the Utility Group, while the Canadian Kennel Club places them in the Non-Sporting Group. The American Kennel Club and the Canadian Kennel club recognise the Toy Manchester Terrier in the Toy Group, while the Australian National Kennel Council] does not recognise the breed at all. The Tibetan Terrier and the Tchiorny Terrier (Black Russian Terrier) are terriers in name only and not related to the other terriers.

The organization of each breed group varies from club to club as well. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale subdivides the Terrier Group into Sections, including Large and medium-sized Terriers, Small-sized Terriers, Bull type Terriers, and Toy Terriers, while other major national kennel clubs do not subdivide the Terrier Group, although some terrier types are placed in the Toy Group by some kennel clubs, and some terriers are placed in other Breed Groups. Listed at the bottom of the article are all Terrier breeds organized by Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) Section.