Lakeland Terrier photos

Puteando a Bull Terrier


Is Billy the Terrier the world's oldest dog?

A Yorkshire Terrier from Halifax called Billy could be set to claim the title of the world's oldest dog, after reaching the age of 22. 

 
Billy the Yorkshire Terrier: the world's oldest dog? (Picture: Ross Parry)

Billy may be a venerable 154 years old in dog years, is blind in one eye and only has a few teeth left - but he's still energetic and active, going out for two walks a day and regularly playing with his loving owner, 71-year-old Betty Holdsworth.

He's still able to run around and even jump - despite the fact that he was in a bad state when he was taken in by the local RSPCA before being placed with his new owner.

'His coat was filthy and matted and his nails were so long he couldn't stand up. He was also very underweight and his teeth were rotten,' the RSPCA's Jule Cockroft told the Halifax Courier earlier this month.


And bIlly could be in line to claim the record of the world's oldest dog if his age can be proved. The Guiness Book of World Records confirmed that the current holder of the title is a 21-year-old dog.

The world's previous oldest dog, a dachshund terrier cross called Otto, was put to sleep in January this year at the age of 20 years and 11 months after suffering from stomach cancer.

 

Dog Breeds: Boston Terrier



These cute dogs are a favourite with owners. We've come to Crufts, the world's largest dog show, to find out everything you need to know about owning a Boston Terrier.

Boston Terrier vs French Bulldog


What do a smart stylish dog and a sweet natured clown dog have in common? Beside their batlike ears, Boston terriers and French bulldogs  also share the same forefather—Bulldog. On appearance and temperament, they do share many similar qualities however they require different type of owner. Both Bostons and Frenchies are great people pleasers however Bostons are ideal family dogs while Frenchies are more of the monogamy type (only bond with one person) of dogs.

This is not to say you can’t have one of each living in the same household. You may need to make some adjustments and give proper trainings.



Boston Terrier vs. French Bulldog

Breed Boston Terrier French Bulldog
Country of Origin United States France
AKC / KC Groups Non-Sporting Group / Utility Group Non-Sporting Group / Utility Group
Original Function Companion Companion

 

 French bulldog

 Physical Appearance

Coat Color Brindle, seal, or black with even white markings—should be on muzzle, between eyes, blaze collar, forechest, and part or whole of forelegs and hindlegs. Brindle, fawn, or pied (predominantly white with brindle markings.
Coat Type Short and smooth Short, soft, and close lying
Head Square wrinkle free skull, jaw, and muzzle. The muzzle is deep and short, with a black nose. Very large, with a pushed-in muscular appearance and wrinkle skin. The upper lip hang low over the sides of the lower jaw.
Eyes Large, round, and set wide apart. Dark brown in color. Set low and far apart. Round and very dark brown.
Ears Small, thin, erect, and set at the corners of the skull. Big batlike ears but thin in texture.
Body Compact and quite muscular with a short back and loins. Chest is deep and wide. Wide body, heavy bone, muscular build. Deep chest and short back, arched over narrow loins and hindquarters.
Tail Set and carried low. Short and either straight or twisted. Set and carried low. Tapers rapidly to a point from a wide base.
Height 15 – 17 inches 11 – 13 inches
Weight 10 – 25 lbs. Three groups—15 lbs and under, 15 – 20 lbs, and up to 25 lbs. 24 – 28 lbs

 Temperament, Needs, and Learning

Overall Temperament Very affectionate, lively, and intelligent. Deeply affectionate, Sweet, amiable, easy going, adaptable
General Activity Moderate Moderately low
Exercise Requirement Needs daily exercises consist of short walks and free romp either indoor or in the yard. Moderate. Short walks and romp in the park
Grooming Requirement It’s an easy care coat with minimal shedding, needs only weekly brushing to remove dead hair. The face should be cleaned daily with a damp washcloth. It’s an easy care coat with minimal shedding, needs only weekly brushing to remove dead hair. The face should be cleaned daily with a damp washcloth.
Ideal Home Environment Due to its compact size, Boston terrier is an idea companion for city dwellers. However, he’s willing to stay with any homeowners who’d offer a spacious and shady yard. Very flexible dog. Apartment or house with a shady yard.
Ideal Owner Owner with a semi-active lifestyle. Must be affectionate, gentle, and patient. i.e. family with children and elderly. Frenchies need human companionship constantly. A “monogamy” kind of dog. Seniors or SOHOs or owners who can take dogs to work.
Special Needs Can be very vocal. So early training is advisable. Can become a couch potato. So give plenty of mental and short duration of physical activities.
Intelligence / Ranking Moderate / ranked no.54 Moderately low / rank no.58
Trainability Very strong-minded and a little stubborn but learn readily. Will only engage in activities that appear fun and interesting to them. Quite easy to train (if you make the training more like games) as long as you don’t expect collie-style of intelligent and standards.
Cold / Heat Tolerance Extremely low / extremely low moderately low / extremely low

Behavior

Excitability Moderate Low
Playfulness High. Loves games and people pleaser. Moderate
Demand for Affection Moderately high. High
Watchdog Barking Excellent barker (on demand). Love the sound of his own voice yet quiet at the same time. Low
Protection Low Low
Dominance Over Owner Low Low
Good With Dogs Great with other dogs at home but sometimes may be aggressive toward strange dogs. Moderately well. However, some males can be very territorial.
Good With Pets Moderately well. Excellent. Occasionally may chase cats.
Good With Children Get along very well with children of any age group. Moderately well. If your Frenchie is devoted to you, he may not be so willing to take commands from your children or vice versa.
Good With Strangers Reserved Very reserved.
Problematic Areas Like all brachycephalic (short-faced) breeds, Bostons may have breathing difficulties when exposed to heat or over exertion. Similar to Bostons and all short-nosed breeds, Frenchies snore and may wheeze and drool.

Health

Life Span 12 – 16 years 11 – 12 years
Major Aliments Brachycephalic syndrome Brachycephalic syndrome, spinal disc trouble
Minor Aliments Patellar luxation, allergies Patellar luxation, hemivertebra
Recommended Food Beef, fish Beef, wheat, oats

Source: www.smalldogsparadise.com

Fox Terrier Dog - A day in the life of an American Dog.

Airedale Terrier Dog breed

The Airedale Terrier (often shortened to "Airedale") is a breed of the terrier type, originating in Airedale, a geographic area in Yorkshire, England. It is traditionally called the "King of Terriers" because it is the largest of the terrier breeds. Having been bred from a Welsh Terrier and an Otter Hound, the breed has also been called the Waterside Terrier, because it was bred originally to hunt otters in and around the valleys of the River Aire which runs through Airedale. In England this breed has also been used as a police dog.



Appearance

The Airedale is the largest of the Terriers originating in Britain. They weigh 25–30 kilograms (55–66 lb) and have a height at the withers of 58–61 centimetres (23–24 in) for dogs, with females slightly smaller. The American Kennel Club  standard specifies a smaller dog. Larger ADTs, up to 55 kilograms (120 lb) can be found in the New World. They are often called "Oorangs." This was the name of a kennel in Ohio in the early 1900s.

The Airedale has a medium length black and tan coat with a harsh topcoat and a soft undercoat. They are an alert and energetic breed, "not aggressive but fearless."  It has been claimed that the large "hunting" type or Oorang airedales are more game than the smaller "show" type airedales. The large type are usually used for big game hunting and as family guardians or as pets, but usually do poorly in AKC conformation shows.The airedale terrier is the second largest of the terriers and stands square in appearance, with the largest being the Black Russian terrier.

Coat


Like many terriers, the breed has a 'broken' coat. The coat is hard, dense and wiry, not so long as to appear ragged, and lies straight and close, covering body and legs. The outer coat is hard, wiry and stiff, while the undercoat shorter and softer. The hardest coats are crinkling or just slightly waved. Curly soft coats are highly undesirable.


Airedales being shown are generally groomed by hand stripping where a small serrated edged knife is used to pull out loose hair from the dog's coat. With regular grooming, the Airedale may shed very little. Although the Airedale often appears on lists of dogs that do not shed (moult), this is misleading. Every hair in the dog coat grows from a hair follicle, and has a cycle of growing, then being shed, then being replaced by another hair in the same follicle. The length of time of the growing and shedding cycle varies by breed, age, and by whether the dog is an inside or outside dog. It may be that "there is no such thing as a nonshedding breed."

The "correct" (according to the AKC breed standard) coat color is either a black saddle, with a tan head, ears and legs; or a dark grizzle saddle (black mixed with gray and white).

Tail

The Airedale's tail is usually docked (surgically shortened) within five days of birth, but this is not a requirement of breed standard authorities. To show an Airedale in the United States, the official AKC  standard states "The root of the tail should be set well up on the back. It should be carried gaily but not curled over the back. It should be of good strength and substance and of fair length"., while in the UK  it is illegal to dock dogs' tails unless it is for the dog's benefit (e.g., if the tail is broken). Traditionally the fluffy tail is left long.

Eyes

The Airedale's eyes "should be dark in colour, small, not prominent, full of terrier expression, keenness and intelligence" Light or bold eyes are considered highly undesirable.

Some Airedales do suffer from eye diseases, such as congenital retina conditions.

Mouth

Airedales have a normal 'scissor bite', where the top teeth close over the bottom. The Airedale's teeth were developed in this way so he could defend himself against quarry he was originally bred to chase.

Size

Airedale terrier males should measure approximately 24 inches in height at the shoulder; bitches, slightly less. There is no mention of a specific weight, although the standard states that both sexes should be sturdy, well muscled and boned. At 23 to 24 inches, a dog should weigh approximately 50 - 70 pounds, being active and agile enough to perform well, while not too small to function as a physical deterrent, retriever or hunter. Some breeders have produced larger Airedale Terriers, such as the 'Oorang Airedale', developed in the 1920s.

Ex-Army captain and Airdale breeder Walter Lingo's monthly magazine "Oorang Comments" (#25, page 81), stated unequivocally that "When full grown your Airedale dog will weigh from forty to fifty-five pounds and if a female will weigh slightly less. This is the standard weight, but when required, we can furnish over-sized Airedales whose weight will be from sixty to one hundred pounds."

Because Lingo tried to fill orders for everyone, the Oorang strain size was never standardized. Airedales weighing from 40 to 100 pounds were produced, but for the most part they were approximately 50 pounds and 22 to 24 inches at the shoulder.

Temperament

The Airedale can be used as a working dog and also as a hunting dog. Airedales exhibit some herding characteristics as well, and have a propensity to chase animals. They have no problem working with cattle and livestock. However, an Airedale that is not well trained will agitate and annoy the animals. Strong-willed, with the tenacity commonly seen in terriers, the Airedale is a formidable opponent.

The Airedale Terrier, like most Terriers, has been bred to hunt independently. As a result, the dog is very intelligent, independent, strong-minded, stoic, and can sometimes be stubborn. They rank 29th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of above average working/obedience intelligence. The Airedale is a dog with a great sense of humor. For those who can laugh along with their Airedale, the dog can provide a unique and entertaining company. For those who don't appreciate being outsmarted by their dog, owning an Airedale can be a trying experience. Patience and consistency in training will be rewarded as the Airedales have been known to reach great heights in competitive obedience, dog agility, and Schutzhund. Airedales need an owner that can be creative in teaching what is expected. Airedales usually get bored easily and need a trainer that has the ability to make working fun and exciting. Changing the routine or taking a play-break is much more productive than trying to force the Airedale. If children and Airedale are both trained correctly, Airedales can be an excellent choice for a family dog.

Albert Payson Terhune wrote of the Airedale: "Among the mine-pits of the Aire, the various groups of miners each sought to develop a dog which could outfight and outhunt and outthink the other miner's dogs. Tests of the first-named virtues were made in inter-mine dog fights. Bit by bit, thus, an active, strong, heroic, compactly graceful and clever dog was evolved – the earliest true form of the Airedale.

He is swift, formidable, graceful, big of brain, an ideal chum and guard. ....To his master he is an adoring pal. To marauders he is a destructive lightning bolt."

They are also very loving, always in the middle of the family activities. Airedales are also known for expressing exactly what they are thinking, unlike more aloof breeds. The Airedale is also a reliable and protective family pet. Airedales are exceedingly loyal and strong dogs; there is one story of an Airedale taking down a bear to protect its master. They are very energetic, and need plenty of exercise.

The Airedale is also stoic, able to withstand pain and injury. An Airedale's injuries and illnesses often go unnoticed until they become severe and require veterinary attention.The airedale terrier will usually do ok with children if they have early exposure and socialization, however they may play too rough for very small ones.

Health
Mortality

Airedale Terriers in UK, USA, and Canadian surveys had a median lifespan of about 11.5 years, which is similar to other breeds of their size.

In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (39.5%), old age (14%), urologic (9%), and cardiac (7%) . In a 2000–2001 USA/Canada Health Survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (38%), urologic (17%), old age (12%), and cardiac (6%).A very hardy breed,although some may suffer from eye problems,hip dysplasia and skin infections.



Morbidity

Airedales can be affected by hip dysplasia.

Like most terriers, they have a propensity towards dermatitis. Skin disorders may go unnoticed in Airedales, because of their hard, dense, wiry coats. Itchy skin may be manifest as acral lick dermatitis (caused by licking one area excessively) or acute moist dermatitis or "hot spots" (an oppressively itchy, inflamed and oozing patch of skin, made worse by intense licking and chewing). Allergies, dietary imbalances, and under/over-productive thyroid glands are the main causes of skin conditions.

An Airedale's coat was originally designed to protect the dog from its predators--the coat was designed to come out in the claws of the predator the dog was designed to hunt, leaving the dog unharmed. Because of this, some forms of skin dermatitis can respond to hand stripping the coat. Clipping the coat cuts the dead hair, leaving dead roots within the hair follicles. It is these dead roots which can cause skin irritations. However, hand stripping removes these dead roots from the skin and stimulates new growth. Hence this process can assist with some forms of skin irritations.

Gastric torsion, or bloat, affects Airedale Terriers. Bloat can turn and block the stomach, causing a buildup of gas. Bloat can be fatal, it can lead to cardiovascular collapse. Signs of bloat are gastric distress (stomach pain), futile attempts at vomiting, and increased salivation. Bloat usually occurs when the dog is exercised too soon after eating. They will eat up to 4-6 cups of food at a time.

History


Airedale, a valley (dale) in the West Riding of Yorkshire, named for the river Aire that runs through it, was the birthplace of the breed. In the mid-19th Century, working class people created the Airedale Terrier by crossing the old English rough-coated Black and Tan Terrier (now known as the Welsh Terrier) with the Otterhound. In 1886, the Kennel Club of England formally recognized the Airedale Terrier breed.

In 1864 they were exhibited for the first time at a championship dog show sponsored by the Airedale Agricultural Society. They were classified under different names, including Rough Coated, Bingley and Waterside Terrier. In 1879 breed fanciers decided to call the breed the Airedale Terrier, a name accepted by the Kennel Club (England) in 1886.

Well-to-do hunters of the era were typically accompanied by a pack of hounds and several terriers, often running them both together. The hounds would scent and pursue the quarry and the terriers would "go to ground" or enter into the quarry's burrow and make the kill. Terriers were often the sporting dog of choice for the common man. Early sporting terriers needed to be big enough to tackle the quarry, but not so big as to prevent them from maneuvering through the quarry's underground lair. As a result, these terriers had to have a very high degree of courage and pluck to face the foe in a tight, dark underground den without the help of human handlers.

During the middle of the nineteenth century, regular sporting events took place along the Aire River in which terriers pursued the large river rats that inhabited the area. A terrier was judged on its ability to locate a "live" hole in the riverbank and then, after the rat was driven from its hole by a ferret brought along for that purpose, the terrier would pursue the rat through water until it could make a kill. As these events became more popular, demand arose for a terrier that could excel in this activity. One such terrier was developed through judicious crossings of the Black-and-Tan Terrier and Bull and Terrier dogs popular at the time with the Otter Hound. The result was a long-legged fellow that would soon develop into the dog we recognize today as the Airedale Terrier. This character was too big to "go to ground" in the manner of the smaller working terriers; however, it was good at everything else expected of a sporting terrier, and it was particularly adept at water work. This big terrier had other talents in addition to its skill as a ratter. Because of its hound heritage it was blessed with the ability to scent game and the size to be able to tackle larger animals. It became more of a multipurpose terrier that could pursue game by powerful scenting ability, be broken to gun, and taught to retrieve. Its size and temperament made it an able guardian of farm and home. One of the colorful, but less-than legal, uses of the early Airedale Terrier was to assist its master in poaching game on the large estates that were off-limits to commoners. Rabbits, hare, and fowl were plentiful, and the Airedale could be taught to retrieve game killed by its master, or to pursue, kill, and bring it back itself.

The first imports of Airedale Terriers to North America were in the 1880s. The first Airedale to come to American shores was named Bruce. After his 1881 arrival, Bruce won the terrier class in a New York dog show.

The patriarch of the breed is considered to be CH Master Briar (1897–1906). Two of his sons, Crompton Marvel and Monarch, also made important contributions to the breed.

The first Canadian registrations are recorded in the Stud book of 1888–1889.

In 1910, the ATCA (Airedale Terrier Club of America) offered the Airedale Bowl as a perpetual trophy, which continues to this day. It is now mounted on a hardwood pedestal base, holding engraved plates with the names of the hundreds of dogs that have been awarded Best of Breed at the National Specialties.

The Airedale was extensively used in World War I to carry messages to soldiers behind enemy lines and transport mail. They were also used by the Red Cross to find wounded soldiers on the battlefield. There are numerous tales of Airedales delivering their messages despite terrible injury. An Airedale named 'Jack' ran through half a mile of enemy fire, with a message attached within his collar. He arrived at headquarters with his jaw broken and one leg badly splintered, and right after he delivered the message, he dropped dead in front of its recipient.

Lieutenant Colonel Edwin Hautenville Richardson was responsible for the development of messenger and guard dogs in the British Army. He, along with his wife, established a War Dog Training School at Shoeburyness in Essex, England. In 1916, they provided two Airedales (Wolf & Prince)for use as message carriers. After both dogs proved themselves in battle, Airedales were given more duties, such as locating injured soldiers on the battlefield, an idea taken from the Red Cross.

Before the adoption of the German Shepherd as the dog of choice for law enforcement and search and rescue work, the Airedale terrier often filled this role.

In 1906, Richardson tried to interest the British Police in using dogs to accompany officers, for protection on patrol at night. Mr. Geddes, Chief Goods Manager for Hull Docks in Yorkshire, was convinced after he went saw the impressive work of police dogs in Belgium. Geddes convinced Superintendent Dobie of the North Eastern Railway Police, to arrange a plan for policing the docks. Airedale Terriers were selected for duty as police dogs because of their intelligence, good scenting abilities and their hard, wiry coats that were easy to maintain and clean.

At the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war in 1904, the Russian embassy in London contacted Lt. Colonel Richardson for help acquiring dogs for the Russian Army, trained to take the wounded away from the battlefields. He sent terriers, mostly Airedale Terriers, for communication and sanitary services. Although these original imports perished, Airedale Terriers were reintroduced to Russia in the early 1920s for use by the Red Army. Special service dog units were created in 1923, and Airedale Terriers were used as demolition dogs, guard dogs, police tracking dogs and casualty dogs.

Two Airedales were among the dogs lost with the sinking of the RMS Titanic. The Airedale "Kitty" belonged to Colonel John Jacob Astor IV, the real-estate mogul. The second Airedale belonged to William E. Carter of Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Mr. Carter was the owner of the Renault automobile in which Jack and Rose trysted in the movie "Titanic". Carter, his wife and two children survived the sinking.

During the 1930s, when airedales were farmed like livestock, American breeders developed the Oorang airedale.

Capt. Walter Lingo, of LaRue, Ohio, developed the Oorang Airedale strain. The name came from a line of bench champions, headed by King Oorang 11, a dog which was said to have been the finest utility dog. King could retrieve waterfowl and upland game, tree raccoons, drive cattle and sheep, and bay mountain lions, bears, and wolves. King even fought one of the best fighting bull terriers, and killed his opponent. He also trained in Red Cross work, and served the American Expeditionary Force at the front in France.

Lingo simply wasn't satisfied with the average strain of Airedale, and after an incredible series of breedings, for which he brought in great Airedales from all over the world, he created the "King Oorang." At the time, Field and Stream magazine called it, "the greatest utility dog in the history of the world." The Oorang Kennel Company continued until Walter Lingo's death in 1969. To help promote the King Oorang, as well as his kennels, Lingo created the Oorang Indians football team headed up by Jim Thorpe. The team played in National Football League from 1922–1923. Jerry Siebert, an Airedale breeder in Buckeye Lake, Ohio, followed in Lingo's footsteps, and bred "Jerang Airedales." There is a kennel in Tennessee that claims to have original Oorang Airedales.

Dogs of close to 100 pounds and upwards may carry the medical and behavioral problems associated with the 1930s airedale. Many large airedales can be as robust, energetic and agile as much smaller dogs with the same life span as smaller airedales.

After the First World War, the Airedales' popularity rapidly increased thanks to stories of their bravery on the battlefield and also because Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, and Warren Harding owned Airedales. President Harding's Airedale was named Laddie Boy.

President Roosevelt claimed that "An Airedale can do anything any other dog can do and then lick the other dog, if he has to."

1949 marked the peak of the Airedales' popularity in the USA, ranked 20th out of 110 breeds by the American Kennel Club. The breed has since slipped to 50th out of 146.

Marion Robert Morrison, otherwise known as John Wayne, grew up in Glendale, California. His neighbors called him "Big Duke," because he never went anywhere without his Airedale Terrier, "Little Duke". He preferred "Duke" to "Marion," and the name stuck for the rest of his life.

The Airedale Terrier was recognized by United Kennel Club in 1914.

The Airedale Terrier, because of its joyful disposition and energy, was one of the first breeds, along with the Giant Schnauzer and the Rottweiler, used to create the Black Russian Terrier.

The Airedale is the current mascot for Alma High School (Alma, Arkansas).

One of the Giles Family, cornerstone characters of Carl Giles' cartoon series from the Daily Express in England, included Butch, an Airedale Terrier.

Why you love a Border Terrier - Video

Bull Terrier Breed Standard


White
The Bull Terrier must be strongly built, muscular, symmetrical and active, with a keen determined and intelligent expression, full of fire but of sweet disposition and amenable to discipline.


Head
Should be long, strong and deep right to the end of the muzzle, but not coarse. Full face it should be oval in outline and be filled completely up giving the impression of fullness with a surface devoid of hollows or indentations, i.e., egg shaped. In profile it should curve gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose. The forehead should be flat across from ear to ear. The distance from the tip of the nose to the eyes should be perceptibly greater than that from the eyes to the top of the skull. The underjaw should be deep and well defined.


Lips
Should be clean and tight.

Teeth
Should meet in either a level or in a scissors bite. In the scissors bite the upper teeth should fit in front of and closely against the lower teeth, and they should be sound, strong and perfectly regular.


Ears
Should be small, thin and placed close together. They should be capable of being held stiffly erect, when they should point upwards.


Eyes
Should be well sunken and as dark as possible, with a piercing glint and they should be small, triangular and obliquely placed; set near together and high up on the dog's head. Blue eyes are a disqualification.


Nose
Should be black, with well-developed nostrils bent downward at the tip.


Neck
Should be very muscular, long, arched and clean, tapering from the shoulders to the head and it should be free from loose skin.

Chest
Should be broad when viewed from in front, and there should be great depth from withers to brisket, so that the latter is nearer the ground than the belly.


Body
Should be well rounded with marked spring of rib, the back should be short and strong. The back ribs deep. Slightly arched over the loin. The shoulders should be strong and muscular but without heaviness. The shoulder blades should be wide and flat and there should be a very pronounced backward slope from the bottom edge of the blade to the top edge. Behind the shoulders there should be no slackness or dip at the withers. The underline from the brisket to the belly should form a graceful upward curve.

Legs
Should be big boned but not to the point of coarseness; the forelegs should be of moderate length, perfectly straight, and the dog must stand firmly upon them. The elbows must turn neither in nor out, and the pasterns should be strong and upright. The hind legs should be parallel viewed from behind. The thighs very muscular with hocks well let down. Hind pasterns short and upright. The stifle joint should be well bent with a well-developed second thigh.

Feet
Round and compact with well-arched toes like a cat.


Tail
Should be short, set on low, fine, and ideally should be carried horizontally. It should be thick where it joins the body, and should taper to a fine point.


Coat
Should be short, flat, harsh to the touch and with a fine gloss. The dog's skin should fit tightly.

Color
Is white though markings on the head are permissible. Any markings elsewhere on the coat are to be severely faulted. Skin pigmentation is not to be penalized.


Movement
The dog shall move smoothly, covering the ground with free, easy strides, fore and hind legs should move parallel each to each when viewed from in front or behind. The forelegs reaching out well and the hind legs moving smoothly at the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. The dog should move compactly and in one piece but with a typical jaunty air that suggests agility and power.

Faults
Any departure from the foregoing points shall be considered a fault and the seriousness of the fault shall be in exact proportion to its degree, i.e. a very crooked front is a very bad fault; a rather crooked front is a rather bad fault; and a slightly crooked front is a slight fault.

Disqualification
Blue eyes.

Colored
The Standard for the Colored Variety is the same as for the White except for the sub head "Color" which reads: Color. Any color other than white, or any color with white markings. Other things being equal, the preferred color is brindle. A dog which is predominantly white shall be disqualified.

Disqualifications
Blue eyes.
Any dog which is predominantly white.


Approved July 9, 1974

Norwich Terrier Dog Breed


The Norwich Terrier is a breed of dog. It originates in the United Kingdom and was bred to hunt small vermin or rodents.

Appearance

These terriers are one of the smallest terriers (11-12 lb, 5-5.4 kg; 9-10 inches (24-25.5 cm) at the withers), with prick ears and a double coat, which come in red, tan, wheaten, black and tan, and grizzle.

Temperament
These small but hardy dogs are courageous, remarkably intelligent and wonderfully affectionate. They can be assertive but it is not typical for them to be aggressive, quarrelsome or shy. They are energetic and thrive on an active life. They are eager to please but have definite minds of their own. They are sensitive to scolding but 100% Terrier. They should never be kept outside or in a kennel setting because they love the companionship of their owners too much. Norwich are not given to unnecessary barking but they will warn of a stranger approaching. Norwich are good with children. If introduced to other household pets as a puppy they generally co-habit peacefully, though caution should be observed around rodent pets as they may be mistaken for prey.


Health


The life expectancy of the Norwich Terrier is 12–16 years. While the Norwich Terrier is considered a healthy breed, there are some health issues for which responsible breeders do preventative genetic health testing, thereby reducing the incidences.

The Norwich Terrier does have a predilection for some health issues but studies to determine the exact mode of inheritance or the exact frequency in the breed are unknown or have not been conclusive. At present there are no disorders identified as "most important". Of secondary magnitude, cataracts are recognized as a disorder that has been reported sporadically and may be inherited. Also of a secondary magnitude there are instances of epilepsy, narrow tracheas, luxating patellas, hip dysplasia, mitral valve disease, [atopy|atopy(allergic inhalant dermatitis)] and incorrect bites (how the teeth meet when the jaws are closed).

Like all dogs, Norwich Terriers can have autoimmune reactivity to rabies vaccinations. Rabies-Vaccine-Induced Ischemic Dermatopathy, or RVI-ID, is a non-fatal but potentially serious reaction to chemicals called adjuvants in the vaccine. RVI-ID is often misdiagnosed, but if correctly diagnosed, is treatable. Symptoms may include: symmetrical dark spots or lesions at the tips of the ears; swelling, hard lumps or dark spots in the vicinity of the injection site.

Higher volume Norwich breeders are seeing more dogs with breathing concerns, and the Norwich and Norfolk Terrier Club (USA) has formed a new "Health and Genetics Sub-Committee for Research on Upper Airway Syndrome in Norwich Terriers"[2]. Upper Airway Syndrome (UAS) covers all abnormalities that can occur in the upper airway, including: elongated soft palates; too short soft palates; narrow/misshapen tracheas; collapsing tracheas; stenotic nares (nasal passages that are too small); swollen tonsils; everted laryngeal saccules. These upper airway disorders can occur singly or in combination with one or two others. All compromise the airway and the dog's ability to breathe normally; the dog's breathing often sounds raspy or moist. It may be that shorter muzzles may have increased incidence of such issues.

Norwich Terriers generally have small litters of 1 to 3 puppies. Generally, if a female is healthy, its optimal breeding period is between the ages of 2 (after all genetic health testing is complete - heart, eyes, hips and petellas) and six years. At seven years of age dogs are considered geriatric. The small supply and the high price of a pure bred Norwich Terrier - often around US$2,500 in 2008 - has attracted fraud, as unsuspecting buyers pay full price for Cairn Terriers with docked tails, or mixed-breed puppies.

In the Canada and the United States you can verify if a dog has completed genetic health testing by checking the open registry at www.offa.org.


Care

Exercise requirements
Norwich Terriers are hardy, active dogs, bred for a working life of pursuing vermin and accompanying their farmer owners on horseback. A good daily walk is therefore the minimum needed to meet the exercise requirements of a healthy Norwich Terrier. Norwich Terriers compete in Earthdog competitions, and are increasingly common in Agility and Flyball competitions. The dogs were bred as working terriers, and thrive best with at least one hour of real activity daily, such as a good walk, run, or working session. Norwich are curious, independent dogs who may become bored by routine, repetitive walks/routes.

Grooming


The Norwich Terrier has two coats - a harsh, wiry topcoat and a soft warm undercoat. Ideally, the coat is combed with a steel comb daily to once a week to remove the loose, dead hairs and prevent matting. Proper maintenance of the Norwich coat, like other hard wiry coats, requires "stripping," or pulling the oldest hairs from the coat (using fingers and/or a "stripping knife," a special grooming comb). Stripping results both in the coat retaining its proper appearance, and in the health of the dog's skin and coat. Ideally, owners hand-strip the coat on a regular basis to achieve what is called a "rolling" coat, where hairs of all lengths are growing in. Maintaining a rolling coat is easier on the dog's skin and requires shorter grooming sessions. At minimum, the coat should be stripped once in the autumn and once in the spring. Clipping or cutting negatively affects the appearance of the coat's natural colours and texture.


Tail docking
Outside of Canada and the United States, the docked-tail profile of the Norwich Terrier is changing. In Australia tail docking is optional.But in NSW it is illegal. In the United Kingdom tail docking is only permitted for working dogs and is banned for dogs bred as pets or showing. Some countries banned general tail docking for a number of years e.g. Norway since 1987, Sweden since 1988. In the last four years Cyprus, Greece, Luxembourg and Switzerland have decided to introduce a ban on tail docking. In the United States, a docked tail is currently considered "strongly preferred" for success in the show ring.

Proponents of docking argue that a docked-tail dog can be extracted from a hole by the tail with less risk to the dog's spine. Opponents of tail docking note that docking severely damages the important canine tail-signalling system, so vital to dogs' social encounters, and also cite the historical basis of docking in the UK to avoid taxation of sporting dogs.


Breeding

Norwich Terriers are difficult to breed. Many have Caesarean sections. The North American average litter size for 2007 is two puppies with the total number of puppies for the year, in the USA, at approximately 750. There are breeding lines with higher average litter sizes as can be easily traced in pedigrees of kennel clubs who include such information, i.e. The Dutch Kennel Club. Similar information can be obtained at internet site of Finnish Kennel Club.

Recently in the United States, there has been significant pedigree fraud . Sometimes these fake Norwich Terriers are sold over the internet.


History
The breed has existed since at least the late 1800s, as working terrier of East Anglia, England. The dogs were useful as ratters in the stable yard, bolters of fox for the hunt, and family companions. It was the mascot of students at Cambridge University. Small red terriers, descendants of Irish Terriers, had existed in the area since at least the 1860s, and these might be the ancestors of the Norwich, or it might have come from the Trumpington Terrier, a breed that no longer exists. In its earliest history, it was also known as the Jones Terrier and the Cantab Terrier.

Since its earliest identification as a breed, puppies have had either drop or prick ears, and both were allowed when the Norwich was first recognized in the show ring in 1932 by The Kennel Club (England). Drop ears were often cropped until it became illegal to do so. This intensified a long-standing controversy over whether drop-eared dogs should be allowed in the show ring and whether the primary difference was simply the ears or whether other, deeper, personality and structural differences marked the drop-eared variety. Starting in the 1930s, breeders increased their efforts to distinguish the breeds. While Norfolk and Norwich Terriers were inter-bred for a number of years today they are positively two distinctive breeds. In fact some historical texts indicate that they were distinctive breeds before they were inter-bred.

Both ear types continued to be allowed in the ring until The Kennel Club recognized the drop-eared variety as a separate breed, the Norfolk Terrier, in 1964, and the American Kennel Club, United Kennel Club, and Canadian Kennel Club did the same in 1979. Until that time the breeds were designated by the AKC as Norwich Terriers, P.E. (prick ears) and Norwich Terriers, D.E. (drop ears).


Bibliography
# Bunting, Marjorie (1997). The Norwich Terrier. Bromma: Mälaröbörsen. ISBN 91-972833-6-3.
# Nicholas, Anna Katherine (March 1, 1994). Norwich Terrier. TFH Publications. ASBN 0866225803.
# Peper, Wilfried (1995). Norfolk und Norwich Terrier. Hamburg: Parey. ISBN 3-490-07619-2.
# Sattler, Victor (2009). Comparative Study & Illustrated Breed Standard of Norfolk and Norwich Terriers. Toronto: Wildgoose.

American Staffordshire Terrier Dog Breed

The American Staffordshire terrier is a breed of medium-sized, short-coated dog  whose early ancestors came from England. In the early part of the twentieth century, the breed gained respectability, and it was accepted by the American Kennel Club as Staffordshire Terrier.


Origins

Although the early ancestors of this breed came from England, the development of the American Staffordshire Terrier is the story of a truly American breed. This type of dog was instrumental in the success of farmers and settlers who developed this country. They were used for general farm work, guarding the homestead, and general companionship.

A number of the early ancestors were also developed for the "sport" of dog fighting. The extraordinary vitality of this breed is a direct result of breeding for successful fighting dogs.

Until the early part of the 19th century the Bulldog was bred with great care in England for the purpose of baiting bulls. Pictures from as late as 1870 represent the Bulldog of that day more like the present-day American Staffordshire Terrier than like the present-day Bulldog. Some writers contend it was the White English Terrier, or the Black and Tan Terrier, that was used as a cross with the Bulldog to perfect the Staffordshire Terrier. It seems easier to believe that any game terrier, such as the Fox Terrier of the early 1800s, was used in this cross, since some of the foremost authorities on dogs of that time state that the Black-and-Tan and the white English Terrier were none too game, but these same authorities go on to stress the gameness of the Fox Terrier. In analyzing the three above-mentioned terriers at that time, we find that there was not a great deal of difference in body conformation, the greatest differences being in color, aggressiveness, and spirit. In any event, it was the cross between the Bulldog and the terrier that resulted in the Staffordshire Terrier, which was originally called the Bull-and-Terrier Dog, Half and Half, and at times Pit Dog or Pit Bullterrier. Later, it assumed the name of Staffordshire Bull Terrier in England. These dogs began to find their way into America as early as 1870 where they became known as Pit Dog, Pit Bull Terrier, later American Bull Terrier, and still later as Yankee Terrier.


Popularity

American Staffordshire terriers reached a peak of popularity in the first half of the 20th century; “Pete the Pup” appeared in the Our Gang comedies, and the breed personified the all-American pet and soon spread all over the country.

In 1936, they were accepted for registration in the AKC Stud Book as Staffordshire Terriers. They belong to the terrier and molosser groups. The name of the breed was revised effective January 1, 1972 to American Staffordshire Terrier. Breeders in this country had developed a type which is heavier in weight than the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England and the name change was to distinguish them as separate breeds.

Although ancestors of the American Staffordshire were fighting dogs, the selective breeding since the 1930s has been away from the fighting heritage. The American Staffordshire Terrier of today is a companion and show dog, rather than a gladiator. Although more rarely used on the farm now, the talents that made him a good all purpose dog are still to be found in the breed. Often called Amstaffs by breed enthusiasts, the dogs' popularity began to decline in the United States following World War II in favor of other breeds. Today the breed is ranked 66 among 155 dog breeds in the USA.


Fox Terrier dog breed


The name Fox Terrier or Foxy refers primarily to two different breeds of dog, the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier, that were independently bred in England in the mid-19th century. The two terrier breeds are very similar, with the only major difference being the coats. The Smooth Fox Terrier has a smooth, flat, but hard and dense coat, whereas the Wire Fox Terrier coat should appear broken with a dense, wiry texture.

In show circles, the terms fox terrier and foxy are only used for these two breeds, but in other communities around the world, particularly rural and farming areas, these words are used for these breeds and also to refer to mixed-breed dogs or working terriers of fox terrier type, or to descendent breeds such as the Toy Fox Terrier and Miniature Fox Terrier, which are similar to each other.

Origin
This dog's breeds were established to assist in fox hunting. Before their development, a hunt would be ruined as soon as the fox reached its hole. The introduction of Fox Terriers into the hunting party solved the problem. If the fox "went to ground" (reached and entered its lair), the terrier would be sent in after it. This identified the major requirements for a Fox Terrier. Firstly, it had to have the stamina to run with the Foxhounds. Secondly, it had to be small enough to follow a fox down its lair. And thirdly, it had to be tough, as a cornered fox was likely to turn and try to fight off an intruder, so a foxy had to be able to stand up to it.

The term Fox Terrier was generic until the latter part of the 19th Century. It referred to a group of dogs of varying type which were bred for the hunt. These dogs were often called "foxies" regardless of type or size. The first Fox Terrier, a dog called "Foiler" or "Old Foiler", was registered by the Kennel Club circa 1875-6, and the breed began the process of standardization.

Refinement of breed types led to the assignment of new breed names to the ensuing breeds. A differentiation was made between the Fox Terrier varieties, although the two breeds were shown under the same breed standard until well into the 20th century. The process of selective breeding was duplicated in other countries as emigrants took their dogs to other parts of the world.


Development of the Fox Terrier around the world
In the United States, fanciers of the Jack Russell Terrier were adamant that their dog, of a type created by The Reverend Mr. John Russell, “The Sporting Parson”, was as much of a fox terrier as the smooth or wirehaired varieties. They referred to those breeds as the Modern Fox Terriers. Some Jack Russell owners preferred that their breed clubs remain unaffiliated, to preserve the working qualities of their fox terrier.

The Toy Fox Terrier was developed by selected breeding from smaller Fox Terriers. The breed was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1936 and generated little controversy.

Smooth and Wirehair Fox Terriers are often referred to as Standard Fox Terriers in Australia in an attempt to minimize confusion.

Today, there are many and varied breeds that are descended from or related to earlier fox terrier types. These include the

    * Brazilian Terrier
    * Japanese Terrier
    * Miniature Fox Terrier
    * Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz
    * Rat Terrier
    * Tenterfield Terrier
    * Chilean Fox Terrier
    * Toy Fox Terrier

The Smooth and Wirehair Fox Terriers are seldom used for hunting these days and are more often pets. Their small size makes them appealing.

Coloring
Genetically, both Smooth and Wire Fox Terriers have base colors of tan or black and tan. The white coloring derives from a "spotting gene", which acts to restrict the formation of color to a greater or lesser degree. This is not related to albinism  in any way. The alleles in the series that are believed present in Fox Terriers are sp for "piebald" markings (random spots, saddles, or even blankets of color, with the head solid color or exhibiting some white in blaze or half face) and sw, extreme white, which restricts color to virtually none or eye and ear patches. Pigment of the nose, lips, pads, and so on remain black in all cases. Eye rims are always black where there is color surrounding, but eyes surrounded by white may get rim pigment gradually or sometimes not at all.


Termperament
As described in the FCI standard for the wire-haired fox terrier, the terrier "should be alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on the tip-toe of expectation at the slightest provocation."

Maintenance
Fox Terriers need to have their nails clipped regularly, whether exercised or not. Their hair needs stripping on a frequent basis to keep well maintained. Especially with wire haired fox terriers, trimming the hair instead of stripping it causes the colors to become dull and the coat to become soft and curly.

Boston Terrier dog breed

The Boston Terrier is a breed  of dog originating in the United States of America. This "American Gentleman" was accepted in 1893 by the American Kennel Club as a non-sporting breed. Color and markings are important when distinguishing this breed to the AKC standard. They should be either black, brindle or seal with white markings.Bostons are small and compact with a short tail and erect ears. They are intelligent and friendly and can be stubborn at times. The average life span of a Boston is 13 years.

History
The Boston Terrier breed originated around 1870, when Robert C. Hooper of Boston purchased a dog known as Hooper's Judge, who was of a Bull and Terrier type lineage. Judge's specific lineage is unknown, however, Hooper's Judge is either directly related to the original Bull and Terrier breeds of the 1700s and early 1800s, or Judge is the result of modern English Bulldogs being crossed into terriers created in the 1860s for show purposes, like the White English Terrier.

Judge weighed over 29.7 pounds (13.5 kilos). Their offspring interbred with one or more French Bulldogs, providing the foundation for the Boston Terrier. Bred down in size from pit-fighting dogs of the Bull and Terrier types, the Boston Terrier originally weighed up to 44 pounds (20 kg.) (Olde Boston Bulldogge). The breed was first shown in Boston in 1870. By 1889 the breed had become sufficiently popular in Boston that fanciers formed the American Bull Terrier Club, but this proposed name for the breed was not well received by the Bull Terrier Fanciers; the breed's nickname, "roundheads", was similarly inappropriate. Shortly after, at the suggestion of James Watson (a noted writer and authority), the club changed its name to the Boston Terrier Club and in 1893 it was admitted to membership in the American Kennel Club, thus making it the first US breed to be recognized. It is one of a small number of breeds to have originated in the United States. The Boston Terrier was the first non-sporting dog bred in the US.

In the early years, the color and markings were not very important, but by the 1900s the breed's distinctive markings and color were written into the standard, becoming an essential feature. Terrier only in name, the Boston Terrier has lost most of its ruthless desire for mayhem, preferring the company of humans, although some males will still challenge other dogs if they feel their territory is being invaded.

Boston Terriers were particularly popular during the 1920s in the US.

Appearance
The Boston Terrier is a lively and highly intelligent breed. Typical physical traits include a smooth coat, and both a short head and tail resulting in a balanced compact build. Coloring is primarily brindle, seal or black in color and evenly marked with white. The head is in proportion to the size of the dog and the expression indicates a high degree of intelligence.

The body is rather short and well knit, the limbs strong and neatly turned, the tail is short and no feature is so prominent that the dog appears badly proportioned. The dog conveys an impression of determination, strength and activity, with style of a high order; carriage easy and graceful. A proportionate combination of "Color and White Markings" is a particularly distinctive feature of a representative specimen.

"Balance, Expression, Color and White Markings" should be given particular consideration in determining the relative value of general appearance to other points.

Size
Boston Terriers are typically small, compactly built, well proportioned dogs with erect ears, short tails, and a short muzzle that should be free of wrinkles. They usually have a square sort of face. According to international breed standard, the dog should weigh no less than 10 pounds and no more than 25 pounds. Boston Terriers usually stand 15-17 inches at the withers.


Coat and color
The Boston Terrier is characteristically marked with white in proportion to either black, brindle, seal, or a combination of the three. Seal is a color specifically used to describe Boston Terriers and is defined as a black color with red highlights when viewed in the sun or bright light. Black, Brindle, and Seal (all on white) are the only colors recognized by the AKC. There are also liver, brown, cream or red and white Boston Terriers, however these marking are more rare than the others listed above, and are disqualified from AKC events. If all other qualities are identical, brindle is the preferred color according to most breed standards.

Ideally, white should cover its chest, muzzle, band around the neck, half way up the forelegs, up to the hocks on the rear legs, and a white blaze between but not touching the eyes. For conformation showing, symmetrical markings are preferred. Due to the Boston Terrier's markings resembling formal wear, in addition to its refined and pleasant personality, the breed is commonly referred to as the "American Gentleman."

Temperament
Boston Terriers have strong, friendly personalities. Bostons can range in temperaments from those that are eager to please their master to those that are more stubborn. Both can be easily trained given a patient and assertive owner.

While originally bred for fighting, they were later down bred for companionship. The modern Boston Terrier can be gentle, alert, expressive, and well-mannered. It must be noted however, that they are not considered terriers by the American Kennel Club, but are part of the non-sporting group. Boston Terrier is something of a misnomer. They were originally a cross-breed between the Old English Bulldog and the English White Terrier.

Some Bostons enjoy having another one for companionship. Both females and males generally bark only when necessary. Having been bred as a companion dog, they enjoy being around people, and, if properly socialized, get along well with children, the elderly, other canines, and non-canine pets. Some Boston Terriers are very cuddly, while others are more independent.
Health
Several health issues are of concern in the Boston Terrier: cataracts (both juvenile and adult type), cherry eye, luxating patellas, deafness, heart murmur, and allergies. Curvature of the back, called roaching, might be caused by patella problems with the rear legs, which in turn causes the dog to lean forward onto the forelegs. This might also just be a structural fault with little consequence to the dog. Many Bostons cannot tolerate excessive heat and also extremely cold weather, due to the shortened muzzle, so hot or cold weather combined with demanding exercise can bring harm to a Boston Terrier. A sensitive digestive system is also typical of the Boston Terrier. In the absence of proper diet, flatulence is associated with the breed. Boston Terriers take in air while they eat and this causes high flatulence.

Bostons, along with Pug, Shih Tzu and other short-snouted breeds are brachycephalic breeds. The word comes from Greek roots "Brachy," meaning short and "cephalic," meaning head. This anatomy can cause tiny nostrils, long palates and a narrow trachea. Because of this, Bostons may be prone to snoring and reverse sneeze, a rapid and repeated forced inhalation through the nose, accompanied by snorting or gagging sounds used to clear the palate of mucus, but does not harm the dog in any way.

Irish Terrier dog breed

The Irish Terrier is a dog breed from Ireland, one of many breeds of Terrier.

The Irish Terrier is an active and compactly sized dog that is suited for life in both rural and city environments. Its harsh red coat protects it from all kinds of weather.

Appearance
Breed standards describe the ideal Irish Terrier as being racy, red and rectangular. Racy: an Irish Terrier should appear powerful without being sturdy or heavy. Rectangular: the outline of the Irish Terrier differs markedly from those of other terriers. The Irish Terrier's body is proportionately longer than that of the Fox Terrier, with a tendency toward racy lines but with no lack of substance.

The tail is customarily docked soon after birth to approximately two-thirds of the original length. In countries where docking is prohibited, the conformation judges emphasize tail carriage. The tail should start up quite high, but it should not stick straight up or curl over the back or either side. The ears are small and folded forward just above skull level. They are preferably slightly darker than the rest of the coat. It is fairly common to see wrongly positioned ears, even though most dogs have their ears trained during adolescence.


Coat and colour
The Irish Terrier is coloured golden red, red wheaten, or wheaten. Dark red is often mistaken as the only correct colour, possibly because wheaten coats are often of worse quality. As with many other solid-coloured breeds, a small patch of white is allowed on the chest. No white should appear elsewhere. As an Irish Terrier grows older, grey hair may appear here and there.

The outer part of the double coat should be straight and wiry in texture, never soft, silky, curly, wavy, or woolly as might be expected in the Kerry Blue Terrier. The coat should lie flat against the skin, and, though having some length, should never be so long as to hide the true shape of the dog. There are longer hairs on the legs, but never so much as a Wire Fox Terrier or Schnauzer. That means you have to have the coat trimmed often which can be expensive.

The inner part of the coat, called the under-wool or undercoat, should also be red. The under-wool may be hard for the inexperienced eye to see. Coat should be quite dense and so that "when parted with the fingers the skin is hardly visible".

A properly trimmed Irish Terrier should have some "furnishings" on legs and head. The slightly longer hair on the front legs should form even pillars, while the rear legs should only have some longer hair and not be trimmed too close to the skin. The chin is accentuated with a small beard. The beard should not be as profuse as that of a Schnauzer.

The eyes should be dark brown and quite small with a "fiery" expression. The eyes are topped with well-groomed eyebrows. The whole head should have good pigmentation.


Size
Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at the withers. However, it is not unusual to see bitches that are 50 cm tall or dogs that are even 53 cm (20 in). Younger generations are closer to the ideal, but there is a downside to this: when an Irish Terrier is very small and light-boned, it loses the correct racy type.

Very seldom does one see Irish Terriers that weigh only 11 to 12 kg (25-27 lb), as the original Kennel Club breed description states. 13 kg for a bitch and 15 for a dog are acceptable.

Temperament
The Irish Terrier is full of life, but not hyperactive; it should be able to relax inside the house and be roused to full activity level quickly.

Irish Terriers are good with people. Most Irish Terriers love children and tolerate rough-housing to a certain extent. Irish terriers are not always the best choice of dog, as they are very energetic and sometimes challenging to train. It is important that they have a strong leader, for whom they have natural respect. New tasks are easily mastered, providing the dog is motivated to learn; Irish terriers have less of an eagerness to please people than some other breed. In motivating, food and toys work equally well. Training will not be as easy as with other dog breeds that have stronger willingness to please people. They respond best to firm, consistent training from a relaxed, authoritative person. As with all dog breeds, violence should never be used - it is always best to outwit and lure. When seeking a trainer, one should look for a person who has experience with terriers.

Irish Terriers are often dominant with other dogs, and same-sex aggression is a common problem. The Irish Terrier will commonly be attracted to species of the same-sex. Poorly socialized individuals can start fights with minimal, if any, provocation. Thus, early socialization is a necessity. Most have strong guarding instincts and when these instincts are controlled, make excellent alarming watchdogs, but if they are not controlled, your dog will be very aggressive and not very compassionate towards the owner.

Most Irish Terriers are show dogs. There are however more and more people joining organised dog sports with their terriers. The obedience training required at a certain level in most dog sports is fairly easy, though the precision and long-lasting drive needed in the higher levels may be hard to achieve. Many Irish Terriers excel in agility, even though it may be hard to balance the speed, independence and precision needed in the higher levels. To date there is one Agility Champion in the US, and a handful of Finnish and Swedish Irish terriers compete at the most difficult classes.

Irish Terriers have a good nose and can learn to track either animal blood or human scent. Many Irish Terriers enjoy Lure Coursing, although they are not eligible for competition like sight hounds are. In Finland one Irish Terrier is a qualified Rescue Dog specializing at Sea Rescue.

Irish Terrier circa 1915
History
The breed's origin is not known. It is believed to have descended from the black and tan terrier-type dogs of Britain and Ireland, just like the Kerry Blue and Irish Soft-haired Wheaten Terriers in Ireland or the Welsh, Lakeland and Scottish Terriers in Great Britain.
F. M. Jowett writes in The Irish Terrier, 'Our Dogs' Publishing Co. Ltd., Manchester, England 1947 - 7th Edition: They are described by an old Irish writer as being the poor man's sentinel, the farmer's friend, and the gentleman's favourite...These dogs were originally bred not so much for their looks as for their working qualities and gameness, the Irish Terrier being by instinct a thorough vermin killer. They were formerly of all types and of all colours - black-and-tan, grey-and-brindle, wheaten of all shades, and red being the predominant colours. Colour or size evidently did not matter if they were hardy and game."

The proper selection process of the breed began only in the latter 19th century. They were shown now and then, sometimes in one class, sometimes in separate classes for dogs under and over 9 pounds.

The first breed club was set up in Dublin in 1879. Irish Terriers were the first members of the terrier group to be recognized by the English Kennel Club as a native Irish Breed - this happened just before the end of the 19th century. The first Irish Terriers were taken to the US in the late 19th century and quickly became somewhat popular.

Although the breed has never been very "fashionable", there used to be big influential kennels in Ireland, the Great Britain and US up to the 1960s. Nowadays there is ambitious breeding in many continents, including Africa (South Africa), North America, (Northern) Europe and Australia.


Care
When groomed properly, the Irish Terrier coat will protect the dog from rain and cold. A properly cared-for Irish Terrier does not shed either. The wiry coat is fairly easy to groom, pet dogs (rather than show dogs) needing stripping only once or twice a year.

The coat must be stripped by hand or a non-cutting knife to retain its weather-resistant qualities. This does not hurt the dog when done properly. Keeping the skin above the stripped section taut with the other hand helps especially where the skin is looser, i.e. belly and chest. Never cut the coat - use your fingers or a non-cutting knife. If the coat is clipped, it loses colour and becomes softer, thus losing its weather-resistant characteristics. For the same reason the coat should not be washed too often, as detergents take away the natural skin oils. Most Irish terriers only need washing when dirty.

When stripping, the coat may be "taken down" entirely to leave the dog in the undercoat until a new coat grows in. For a pet, this should be done at least twice a year. When a show-quality coat is required, it can be achieved in many ways. One is by "rolling the coat", i.e. stripping the dog every X weeks to remove any dead hair. Before a show an expert trimmer is needed to mould especially the head and legs.

Most Irish Terriers need to have their ears trained during adolescence. Otherwise the ears may stick up, roll back or hang down unaesthetically.


Health
Irish Terrier is a generally healthy breed. The life expectancy is around 13 – 14 years.

The proportions are not over-exaggerated in any way and thus eye or breathing problems are rare. Most Irish Terriers do not show signs of allergies towards foods. As they are small dogs, the breed has a very low incidence of hip dysplasia.

In the 1960s and 1970s there were problems with hyperkeratosis, a disease causing corny pads and severe pain. Today it is widely known which dogs carried the disease and respectable breeders do not use those bloodlines any more. A health study conducted by the Irish Terrier Club of America showed a greater-than-expected incidence of hypothyroidism and cataracts. There are not enough eye-checked individuals to draw any conclusions.


Appearances in arts and culture

Irish Terriers have appeared in the arts every now and then.

Jack London's books Jerry of the Islands and Michael, Brother of Jerry were about Irish Terriers, that according to the bloodlines recorded in the beginning of the book may actually have lived.

It is said that Disney's Tramp in 'Lady and the Tramp', although a mutt, was drawn to resemble an Irish Terrier. (In the comic book versions the brownish red color of Tramp has been changed to grey.)

The 2007 film Firehouse Dog features an Irish Terrier as the title character.

Former Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King owned several Irish Terriers (all named Pat), and had séances to "communicate" with the first Pat after the dog's death.

Alexandra Day's children's picture book Paddy's Payday features an Irish Terrier as the title character. (Day is best known for her book Good Dog, Carl.)